Short Course R4 F9

目录

Hole 1

Question: As you are attempting to drop a ball correctly in the relief area, the ball accidentally hits the tee you placed in the ground to indicate the nearest point of complete relief. The ball strikes the tee before it hits the ground, but the dropped ball remains in the relief area. You play the ball as it lies. How many penalty strokes do you get, if any?       

当你试图在补救区正确抛球时,球意外碰到了你插在地上用来标示最近补救点的球座。球是先碰到球座然后再触地的,但落下的球仍在补救区内。你按照球的现有位置打了球。如果有的话,你会罚几杆 

a. 0
b. 1
c. 2 

Correct Answer / 正确答案:b 

Hole 2

Question: In taking relief from a cart path (immovable obstruction), you pick up your ball and drop it within the relief area. The ball rolls and comes to rest outside of the relief area, so you pick it up to drop a second time and notice a scuff on the ball, which was probably caused when your shot hit the path. Although the ball is not cut or cracked, you decide to get another ball from your bag. You drop the new ball in the right way and it comes to rest in the relief area. Which one of the following is correct?     

a. You are not allowed to use a substituted ball because the original ball was not cut or cracked. The second drop does not count and you must drop the original ball a second time to avoid penalty.   

b. You are not allowed to use a substituted ball because the original ball was not cut or cracked.   You must mark the location of the substituted ball, lift it, and place the original ball on that spot.   

c.  You have proceeded correctly and must continue with the substituted ball.   

d. You would have been allowed to substitute a ball before dropping the first time, but once a ball is dropped, you must continue with that ball for any further drops. If you play the substituted ball, you get the general penalty.    

问题:在从球车道(不可移动妨碍物)补救时,你拿起你的球并把它抛在补救区内。球滚到了补救区外,你拿起它准备进行第二抛时注意到球上有一个擦痕,这可能是球砸在球车道上造成的。虽然球没有切痕或破裂,但你还是决定从球包拿另外一个球。你以正确的方式抛下新球,它停在了补救区内。以下哪一项是正确的?  

a.  你不允许使用替换球,因为原球没有切痕或破裂。第二抛不算,你必须用初始球进行第二抛以避免处罚

b.  你不允许使用替换球,因为原球没有切痕或破裂。你必须标出替换球的位置,拿起它,并将初始球放在该位置上。 

c.  你的做法是正确的,必须以替换球继续比赛。

d.  你可以在第一次抛球前替换一个球,但是一旦抛了球,你就必须继续用这个球来抛球。如果你打了替换球,你将受到一般性处罚。 

Correct Answer / 正确答案:  c 

Hole 3 

True or False: If your caddie drops a ball for you in taking relief and drops the ball from knee height, the ball has been dropped in the “right way” according to Rule 14.3b.    

a. True   
b. False  

正确还是错误:如果你的球童在采取补救时为你抛了球,且是从膝高处抛球的,根据规则14.3b,球已经以 “正确的方式 “抛下。 

a.  正确 
b.  错误 

Correct Answer / 正确答案: b 

Hole 4 

Question: You are dropping your ball when taking embedded ball relief in the fairway. The dropped ball hits your club that you left on the ground in the relief area and the ball comes to rest in the relief area. Which one of the following is false?      

a.  If the ball accidentally hit your club before first hitting the ground in the relief area, you must drop again, and this drop does not count as one of the two drops required before a ball must be placed under Rule 14.3c(2).   

b.  If the ball hit the ground in the relief area and then accidentally hit your club, you must drop again, and this drop does not count as one of the two drops required before a ball must be placed under Rule 14.3c(2).   

c.  If the ball hit the ground in the relief area and then hit your club that you left in position to keep the ball from rolling into a divot hole within the relief area, you get the general penalty for deliberately deflecting the ball and this drop does not count as one of the two drops required before a ball must be placed under Rule 14.3c(2).   

问题: 你正在球道上进行陷入地面之球的补救,抛下的球砸在了你放在补救区内的球杆上,之后球静止在补救区内。以下哪一项是错误的? 

a.   如果球在补救区首次触地前意外击中你的球杆,你必须再次抛球,题述的抛球不计入规则14.3c(2)规定的必须放置球之前的两次抛球中的一次。

b.  如果球在补救区触地后意外地碰到你的球杆上,你必须再次抛球,题述的抛球不计入规则14.3c(2)规定的必需放置球之前的两次抛球中的一次

c.  如果球在补救区触地然后碰到你的球杆上,而你放置球杆在该位置是为了防止球滚入补救区内的一个打痕,你会因故意使球变向而受到一般性处罚,而且题述的抛球不计入规则14.3c(2)规定的必须放置球之前的两次抛球之一。

Correct Answer / 正确答案: b 

Hole 5

Question: In stroke play, with no Local Rules in effect, your ball comes to rest in the general area close to a sprinkler head that interferes with your area of intended stance. The sprinkler head is in the fringe, two feet from the putting green. Which one of the following is true about taking free relief from the sprinkler head? 

a.  If part of your one club-length relief area includes the putting green, you may place a ball in the relief area on the putting green.   

b.  If part of your one club-length relief area includes the putting green, you may drop a ball in the relief area on the putting green.   

c.  If you drop a ball in the relief area that first hits the ground in the fringe and it rolls and comes to rest on the putting green in the relief area and within one club-length of and not nearer the hole than the nearest point of complete relief, you may play the ball from there without penalty.    

d.  If you drop a ball in the relief area that first hits the ground in the fringe and it rolls and comes to rest on the putting green in the relief area and within one club-length of and not nearer the hole than the nearest point of complete relief, you must drop a second time.   

问题:在比杆赛中,在没有当地规则的情况下,你的球停在普通区域并靠近一个喷头,该喷头妨碍了你的预计站位区域。该喷头位于果岭围环地带,距离推杆果岭两英尺。关于从喷头获得免罚补救,以下哪项是正确的? 

a.  如果你的一杆范围补救区包含一部分果岭,你可以在果岭部分的救补救区内放置一个球。 

b.  如果你的一杆范围补救区包含一部分包括果岭,你可以在果岭部分的补救区内抛球。 

c.  如果你在补救区抛下的球首先落在果岭围环的地面上,然后滚到并静止在补救区内的推杆果岭部分,并位于最近完全补救点的一杆范围内且不更靠近旗洞,你可以从那里打球而不受处罚。   

d.  如果你在救灾区落下的球首先落在果岭围环的地面上,然后滚到并静止在补救区内的推杆果岭部分,并位于最近完全补救点的一杆范围内且不更靠近旗洞你必须进行第二次抛球  

Correct Answer / 正确答案: d

Hole 6 

Question: Which one of the following statements is true about dropping a ball in the “right way” according to Rule 14.3b?   

a.  You are not required to drop the ball from a standing position.    

b.  You may spin or roll the ball, so long as it hits the ground in the relief area and stays in the relief area.   

c.  You cannot stand inside the relief area when dropping the ball.   

问题:根据规则14.3b,关于以 “正确的方式 “抛球,以下哪项陈述是正确的?  

a.  你不需要以站立的姿势抛球。 

b.  你可以旋转或滚动球,只要球落在补救区的地面上并停留在补救区内。  

c.  在抛球时,你不能站在补救区内 

Correct Answer / 正确答案: a 

Hole 7

Question: You are taking relief from a red penalty area and want to use Rule 17.1d(3) – Lateral Relief. You drop a ball from knee height and it lands in the relief area, but rolls and comes to rest in the same penalty area. You drop a second time from knee height and the ball lands just outside the relief area and comes to rest inside it. Knowing you get one penalty stroke for taking relief from the penalty area, what must you do to avoid further penalty?  

a. Play the ball from where it came to rest after the second drop.  

b. Place a ball at the point it first touched the ground on the first drop.   

c. Drop a ball again in the relief area. If it comes to rest in the relief area, play it from there, if not, place it where it first hit the ground on the third drop.  

d. Drop a ball again, using any of the other options available under Rule 17.1d – Relief for Ball in Penalty Area.   

你正在采取红色罚杆区补救,想使用17.1d(3)–侧面补救。你从膝高抛下一个球,球落在补救区内,但滚到并停在同一罚杆区内。你第二次从膝高抛球,球刚好落在补救区之外,然后静止在(补救区)内。你知道你从罚杆区补救要罚一杆,之后你必须做什么来避免进一步的处罚?

a. 从第二次抛球后球静止之处打球。

b. 放一个球在第一抛时球首次触地的那一点上。

c. 在补救区内再次抛球。如果它停在补救区内,就从那里打,如果不是,就把球放在第三抛时它首次触地的地方。

d. 再拋球,可以使用17.1d-球在罚杆区内的补救中的任一选项。

Correct Answer / 正确答案:c

Hole 8

True or False: When you are required or allowed to take stroke-and-distance relief, your relief area may include more than one area of the course.  

a. True  
b. False  

正确或错误:当你被要求或被允许采取一杆加距离补救时,你的补救区可能包括球场上不止一个的区域。

a. 正确
b. 错误

Correct Answer / 正确答案: b

Hole 9

Question: You find your ball in a bush left of the fairway near a bunker. You decide to take lateral relief under the unplayable ball Rule. To get as far away from the bush as possible, you try to drop on the grass near the bunker. When attempting to drop a ball in the grass, it first touches sand in the bunker and embeds. You measure and find that the ball in the bunker is within two club-lengths of and no closer to the hole than where the ball was in the bush. Which one of the following is correct?  

a. The drop does not count and you must drop again. The bunker is not part of the relief area when taking lateral relief under the unplayable ball Rule for a ball in the general area.  

b. Although part of the relief area was in the bunker, this drop does not count and you must drop again because your intent was to drop in the general area and not in the bunker.  

c. You must continue with the ball dropped in the bunker.  

d. You have the option of playing the ball as it lies in the bunker or taking embedded ball relief.  

问题:你在球道左边靠近沙坑的一个灌木丛中找到了你的球。你决定根据 不可打之球的规则采取侧面补救。为了尽可能地远离灌木丛,你尝试在靠近沙坑的草地上抛球。你试图把球抛在草地上,但球首先触到沙坑中的沙子并陷在里面。你测量后发现,沙坑中的球距离它在灌木丛的位置不超过两杆范围,且不更靠近球洞。以下哪一项是正确的?

a. 这一抛不算,你必须再次抛球。当根据不可打球规则, 对位于普通区内的球进行侧面补救时,沙坑不属于补救区的一部分。

b. 虽然补救区的一部分在沙坑内,但这次抛球不算,你必须再次落球,因为你的意图是(将球)抛在普通区域而不是沙坑。

c. 你必须继续打抛在沙坑内的球。

d. 你可以选择打沙坑中的球,或者进行陷入地面之球的补救。

Correct Answer / 正确答案: c

9件有意义的事

2019年在Netflix上看到过一个纪录片,讲的是一些被医生判定不能医治的绝症患者,他们凭借自己的信念和方法自愈了。片名我已经不记得了,在Netflix上也下画了。还好我有做笔记的习惯,记下了片中引用的资料——其中提到一位学者对1500名不治而愈的绝症患者进行了跟踪研究,总结出这1500名患者都做了以下9件事:

#1
Radically changing your diet. 从根本上改变你的饮食。
#2
Taking Control of your health. 掌控自己的健康。
# 3
Following your intuition. 跟随你的直觉。
#4
Using herbs and supplements. 使用草药和保健品。
#5
Releasing suppressed emotions. 释放压抑的情绪。
#6
Increasing positive emotions. 增进积极的情绪。
#7
Embracing social support. 接受社会支持。
#8
Deepening your spiritual connection. 深化你的精神联系。
#9
Have a strong reason for living. 有一个强烈的生存理由。
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Short Course R3 B9

目录 Contents

Making the Turn and the Back Nine  (Questions 10-18) 

As you walk to the 10th tee, there’s a sign informing you that course maintenance had to modify their normal routine today and that you should expect slightly faster green speeds on the back nine… 

Hole 10 

Question: In stroke play, your ball comes to rest above and near a steep slope on the putting green. Without your authorization or knowledge, your caddie marks the spot of and lifts your ball, cleans it, and replaces it on its original spot. A gust of wind causes your ball at rest to move down the slope and it comes to rest on a different part of the putting green. Without marking the ball’s spot in the new location, you lift it and try to replace it on its original spot but it won’t come to rest. You try to replace it a second time, without success. Rather than moving away from the original spot to find the nearest spot where your ball will come to rest, you try to replace it on the original spot for a third time and, this time, the ball stays at rest. You then make a stroke from that spot, the original spot where it first came to rest on the putting green. How many penalty strokes do you get, if any? 

(a) 0 
(b) 1 
(c) 2 
(d) 3 

CORRECT ANSWER: A 

When you get to the putting green, you can immediately tell the putting green is running a bit faster, as you are forced to think through a number of unusual happenings. 

Your caddie can always mark, lift and clean your ball on the putting green (remember, the putting green is a special place where you can always lift your ball so this specific act is treated different from the many other actions your caddie must first have your permission or authorization to do – see Rule 10.3b.).  And, since your caddie lifted it, he or she can replace it too. 

Your ball now “owns the spot” because it’s been lifted or moved from that spot. Therefore, even though it moves due to the wind (a natural force) it owns the spot and you’ll need to replace back on the original spot before you play. 

When the ball doesn’t stay on the original spot, you did the right thing trying a second time and now must find the nearest spot where the ball will stay at rest. A quick reading of Rule 14.2e might have you thinking that trying a third time on the same spot isn’t the right procedure, but it’s pretty hard to get closer to the original spot than the original spot … right?!? 

All said, no penalties and ready for more Back Nine fun.  

问题: 在比杆赛中,你的球停在果岭,位于球洞的上方,靠近一个陡峭的下坡。你的球童在没有你的授权或知情的情况下标记了你的球位并把你的球拿起来,清洁干净,然后把它放置回原位。一阵风使你静止的球顺着斜坡向下滚,并停在果岭的另一个地方。你没有在新的位置上标记球位就把它拿了起来,试图把它放置回原位,但是它没静止下来。你第二次尝重置,没有成功。你没有离开原位去寻找离你的球最近的停点,而是第三次尝试在原位上重置它。这一次,球停静止在原地。然后,你从那里,也就是球第一次停在果岭上的那个地方打出一杆。如果要罚杆的话,你要罚多少杆? 

(a) 0 
(b) 1 
(c) 2 
(d) 3 

正确答案 A 

就在你走上果岭时,你立刻感到果岭的速度更快了,因为你不得不思考一些不寻常的状况。 

你的球童总是可以在果岭上标记、拿起和清洁你的球(记住,果岭是一个特殊的地方,你总是可以拿起你的球,所以,这个特定的行为与你的球童必须先得到你的许可或授权才能做的许多其他行为的处理方式不同–见规则10.3b)。 而且,既然你的球童拿起了它,他或她也可以把它放回原位。 

你的球现在 “拥有这个位置”,因为它已经在这个位置上被拿起或移走过。因此,即使它因风(一种自然力)而移动,它仍然拥有这个位置,你需要在打球前将其放回原位。 

当球没能静止在原来的位置时,你做了第二次正确的尝试,现在必须找到最近的位置使球可以静止。快速阅读一下规则14.2e可能会让你觉得在同一地点尝试第三次并不是正确的程序,但是要找比原点更接近原点是相当困难的……对吗?!? 

都说了,没有处罚,继续享受更多后九的乐趣。 

Hole 11 

Question: Which one of the following is true regarding the replacement of your ball under the Rules? 

(a) The original ball must always be used. 
(b) Regardless of who moved your ball, your partner may always replace it. 
(c) If you make a stroke at your ball after it is replaced by someone who is not allowed, you lose the hole in match play. 
(d) You may replace your ball on its original spot by rolling it into position with a club. 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

Hole 11, aptly names 3 myths and one truth, and tests your ability to distinguish that fact from those fictions. If there is one thing to by weary of, it’s the use of the word always when talking about the Rules, and immediately puts a target on one of the first two Options. 

For Option A, a quick read of Rule 14.2a will make clear that the original ball doesn’t always have to be used. While this is true in most situations you’ll encounter during a round (even here on the Short Course), the Rules do provide a few common sense exceptions that let you use another ball. 

In Option B, well this is an always you can trust, because your partner can do pretty much anything that you can. And in this case, your partner can always replace your ball, even if he or she wasn’t the one who lifted in the first place. 

Option C, speaks to one of the most common rules myths – that one-stroke penalties only exist in stroke play. The truth is that there are a number of one-stroke penalties in match play too, this being one of them. 

Finally, Option D focuses on the “how to” of replacing a ball. To properly replace (or place) a ball, it needs to be set down with your hand and on the correct spot. If you roll it back with your club, even if you get it to the right spot, you have failed to properly replace the ball.  

问题:关于将球放置回原位,根据规则以下哪一项是正确的? 

(a) 必须总是使用原球。 
(b) 无论谁移动了你的球,你的伙伴总是可以将它放回原位。 
(c) 如果你击打了一个被规则不允许的人放置回原位的球,在比洞赛中你会输掉该洞。 
(d) 你可以用球杆将你的球滚回到原来的位置上来实现重置(放置回原位)。 

正确答案 B 

第11洞,恰如其分地说出了3个谬传和1个事实同时考验你将这一事实与那些虚构的东西区分开来的能力。如果说有一件事必需注意的,那就是在谈论规则的时候使用 “总是(always)” 这个词,这样立即就把目标(答案)放在了前两个选项中的一个。 

对于选项A,快速阅读一下规则14.2a就会明白,原球并不总是必须使用。虽然你在一轮中遇到的大多数情况下都是如此(即使是在short course上),但规则确实提供了一些常识性的例外情况,让你使用另一个球。 

在选项B中,嗯,这是一个你可以信任的“总是”,因为你的伙伴几乎可以做任何你可以做的事情。而在本题的情况下,你的伙伴总是可以将你的球放置回原位,即使他或她不是那个从原位拿起你的球的人。 

选项C,说的是最常见的规则谬传之一 —— 罚一杆只存在于比杆赛中。事实是,在比洞赛中也有许多罚一杆的,这就是其中之一。 

最后,选项D侧重于放置回原位的 “方法”。要正确地重置(或放置)一个球,需要用你的手把它放在正确的位置上。如果你用球杆把它滚回去,即使你把它静止在正确的位置上,你也没有正确地把球放置回原位。 

Hole 12

Question: Your ball comes to rest in a position where you have interference from ground under repair and are allowed relief under Rule 16.1b. You mark the spot of your ball and lift it to take relief, and then realize the relief area is under a bush. Which one of the following actions would result in you not getting one penalty stroke under Rule 9.4?

(a) Replace the ball on the original spot.
(b) Replace the ball on the original spot and then take unplayable ball relief (Rule 19.2).
(c) Without first replacing the ball, take back-on-the-line unplayable ball relief (Rule 19.2b) using the spot where the original ball lay as the reference point.
(d) Without first replacing the ball or dropping it in the relief area, take stroke-and-distance relief.

CORRECT ANSWER: D

Every seasoned referee has come upon a player seeking rules help, only to wish they had arrived sooner in seeing there are no good relief options as the player smiles meekly having already lifted the ball (doesn’t it seem that our Short Course referees end up in that situation all the time??).

Fortunately, they all have a good understanding of Interpretation 9.4b/6, which provides helpful guidance to determine which Option will avoid a penalty stroke under Rule 9.4b.

Options A and B both result in a one penalty stroke under Rule 9.4. To avoid penalty here, you need to continue on and complete cart path relief under Rule 16.1. By not doing so, you are no longer allowed to lift the ball, and the Exceptions to Rule 9.4 no longer apply – unfortunately that penalty stroke does. Further, in Option B, you’ll need to add another penalty stroke when you decide to take unplayable relief.

Option C has a similar outcome to Option B in that you’ll end up with a penalty under Rule 9.4b and an additional penalty stroke for later deciding to take unplayable ball relief under Rule 19b. If you had decided to take unplayable relief before lifting the ball, you could have avoided the Rule 9.4b penalty. Unfortunately, that’s not what you did, so you’ll need to add two.

That leaves just Option D, where your dear friend, stroke-and-distance relief always seems to provide a way out. As has been noted before, always is rare in the Rules, but stroke and distance is, in fact, always an option.

That, however, doesn’t provide the full story as to why this option is available without getting a penalty under Rule 9.4, whereas the other two unplayable ball relief option don’t keep score the same way.

The difference with stroke-and-distance relief involves two points. The first is that you were allowed to lift your ball in the first place (because you had interference from an abnormal course condition). The second, is that regardless of whether you continued taking relief from the cart path under Rule 16.1, or directly took stroke-and-distance relief, you don’t need to establish a new reference point … the spot of your last stroke is fixed either way. Because of these two important points, you may proceed back to where you last played form without the additional one-stroke penalty.

问题:你的球静止在一个受到修理地妨碍的位置上,根据规则16.1b允许补救。你标记了你的球位并拿起了球准备补救,然后发现补救区在一丛灌木下。以下哪种行为不会导致你被规则9.4罚一杆?

(a) 把球放置回原位。

(b) 把球放置回原位,然后采取不可打之球的补救(规则19.2)。

(c) 球不放回原位,以球的初始位置为参照点,采取不可打之球的向后延线补救(规则19.2b)。

(d) 球既不放回原位,也不在补救区内抛球,而是采取一杆加距离的补救。

正确答案 D

每个经验丰富的裁判员都曾碰到这样的情形:赶到一个需要规则帮助的球员面前,却恨自己没能早点到场——这位球员在还没找到好的补救方案之前就已经笑眯眯地拿起了球。(我们的Short Course裁判不是经常遇到这种情况吗??)

幸运的是,他们都很好地理解了释义9.4b/6,它提供了有用的指导,以确定哪一个选项可以避免规则9.4b下的罚杆。

根据规则9.4,选项A和B都会导致罚一杆。为了避免处罚,你需要继续完成规则16.1所规定的球车道补救。假如不这样做,你就不再拥有拿起球的授权,规则9.4的例外情况也不再适用,不过不幸的是,(规则9.4下的)罚杆却依然适用。此外,在选项B中,当你决定采取不可打之球的补救时,你需要再加上一杆罚杆。

选项C的结果与选项B相似,你根据规则9.4b被处罚,并且因为后来决定采取不可打之球的补救而被规则19b追加一杆罚杆。如果你在拿起球之前就决定采取不可打之球的补救,你就可以避免规则9.4b的处罚。不幸的是,你没有这样做,所以你需要加两杆。

这就只剩下选项D了,一杆加距离在这里似乎是你的密友,总是给你一条生路。正如之前所说的,“总是”在规则中是很罕见的,事实上,一杆加距离就总是一个(可供选择的)选项。

然而,故事讲到这里还没完,就是为什么这个选项可以不受规则9.4的处罚,而其他两个不可打之球的补救却不能用同样的方式计算?

与一杆加距离的区别涉及两点。第一,规则允许你从球的初始位置拿起球(因为你有来自异常球场状况的妨碍)。第二,无论你是根据规则16.1继续从球车道上脱困,还是直接采取一杆加距离脱困,你都不需要建立一个新的参考点……你上一杆的击球位置是固定的。因为这很重要的两点,你可以继续回到你上一次击球的位置,而不需要额外罚一杆。 

Hole 13

Question: Your approach shot comes to rest on the putting green ten feet from the hole. As you are approaching your ball to mark its spot, a gust of wind moves your ball and it comes to rest down a slope and away from the hole where you are now faced with a more difficult putt. You ask your caddie to throw you a towel so you can clean your ball, but it comes up short and the wind blows your towel into your ball, causing it to move a few inches farther from the hole. Knowing that wind is a natural force, you play the ball from its new location. What is the ruling?

(a) You proceeded correctly and get no penalty.
(b) You get one penalty stroke.
(c) You get the general penalty.

CORRECT ANSWER: C

Here on Hole 13 you demonstrated a good understanding in knowing that wind is a natural force, however the Rules don’t give your caddie a pass for that poor toss of your towel. This situation comes down to cause and effect and the timing involved.

You and your caddie saw the towel come up short of the target, with the wind blowing it into your ball.  So, you’ll want to ensure you replace your ball before making your next stroke. Having failed to do this, you earned the general penalty.

Extra credit to those of you who were scratching your head thinking that there’s no way to know whether Rule 9.4 or 9.6 applied here (that fact set was deliberately left vague noting it isn’t necessary to correctly answer the question and, after all, you are playing the Back Nine…). The following extra info should close that loop.

Let’s start with the status of the towel in the context of Rule 9. It is an outside influence (which is covered under Rule 9.6), as is anything that your caddie might throw your way.

Next, the following phrase that is included in the question, “but it comes up short and the wind blows your towel into your ball” can be read in two very different ways.

The first would be that the towel came up short of reaching you and it was blown directly into your ball. This would be the equivalent of your caddie dropping the towel directly onto your ball – in basic terms, your caddie should have been more careful and Rule 9.4 would apply.

The other way you could have read that phrase was that the terrible towel toss first came to rest on the putting green, and only then the wind blew the towel toward your ball and moved it. In this reading, Rule 9.6 would apply (and Interpretation 9.6/1 helps to make that clear).

Repeating from earlier, because you failed to replace your ball before you played, it is not necessary to know which of these Rules applied to correctly answer the question, but it’s the extra information here in our “Thoughts on the Round” that we hope gives you a better understanding of when to blame your caddie and when you can give him or her a pass.

问题: 你把球攻上果岭,球停在离洞10英尺的果岭上。当你走向你的球准备标记它的位置时,一阵风吹动了你的球,使它移动到并静止在一个斜坡上且离球洞更远了,你现在面临一个更困难的推杆。你让你的球童给你扔一条毛巾,这样你可以清洁你的球,但毛巾扔短了,风把你的毛巾吹到了你的球上,导致它离洞口又远了几英寸。你知道风是一种自然力,你从新的位置打了球。判定是什么?

(a) 你的处理正确,没有处罚。
(b) 你被罚一杆。
(c) 你得到一般性处罚。

正确答案 C

在13号洞这里,你很好地表现出你理解风是一种自然力,但规则并没有给你球童扔毛巾的糟糕表现一个机会。这种情况涉及到因果关系和时机问题。

你和你的球童已经看到毛巾扔短了,风把它吹到你的球上。 因此,你要确保在进行下一次击球前把你的球放置回原位。没有这样做,你得到了一般性处罚。

这里该用规则9.4还是9.6呢?给你们那些搞不清该用哪条而正在挠头的一些额外的帮助吧(这道题的事实设定就是故意含糊其辞地留下一些影响你正确回答问题的非必要信息。说到底,你正在打的是后九……)。下面的额外信息应该可以帮你搞定。

让我们先来看看毛巾在规则9中的身份状态。它是一种外部因素(包括在规则9.6中),就像你的球童可能扔给你的任何东西一样。

接下来,问题中包括的这句话:“但是毛巾扔短了,风把你的毛巾吹到了你的球上”,可以有两种非常不同的解读方式。

第一种情况是,毛巾还没有碰到你就直接吹被到了你的球上。这相当于你的球童将毛巾直接丢到了你的球上—从根本上讲,你的球童应该更加小心,规则9.4将适用。

你也可以用另一种方式来解读这句话,那就是:那条毛巾被糟糕地扔出去后首先停在果岭上,然后风才将毛巾吹向你的球并移动了它。在这种解读中,规则9.6将适用(解释9.6/1有助于明确这一点)。

重复前面的内容,因为你在击球前没有将球放回原位,所以没有必要知道这些规则中的哪一条适用于正确回答这个问题。不过在《本轮思考》里面,我们希望这些额外信息能让你更好地理解什么时候该责怪你的球童,什么时候可以不计较。

Hole 14

Question: Your tee shot comes to rest in a muddy portion of a red penalty area. While walking toward your ball, you see the turtle move your ball and it rolls down into the water. Although it would be both easy and quick to get your ball, you replace a different ball on the spot it was moved from to avoid getting your shoes dirty. While setting up to make your stroke, you have second thoughts about playing from the mud. Instead you decide to take penalty area relief. After taking relief, you play the ball onto the putting green and then complete the hole in two more strokes. What is your score for the hole?

(a) 4
(b) 5
(c) 6
(d) 7

CORRECT ANSWER: B

There’s a lot going on in the penalty area on 14th hole (and if you played Round 2, you may have noticed our 🐢 friend seems to call this part of the course home) and we’ll start by reminding you of what was covered back on Hole 11, where we normally need to replace the original ball, but sometimes the Rules let us substitute.

In this case because your original ball can be quickly and easily retrieved, you must use the original ball in operating under Rule 9.6.

But what triggers the penalty for substituting a ball when not allowed? It’s not just the act of replacing another ball. This incorrect substitution is a procedural breach in which Rule 14.5 gives you the opportunity to fix up until you make a stroke, and your “second thought” about playing that incorrectly substituted ball also saves you the general penalty.

To understand this, you’ll need to dig a little deeper than the Rules, noting Interpretation 14.2/1 makes it clear that when you decide to take relief under a Rule, the replacement requirement under Rule 9 is not required – you can instead jump right into the other relief procedure.

So to add ‘em up correctly on Hole 14, you can forget about anything in Rule 9 (and that incorrect substitution), and just be sure to count all your talent strokes, and also that penalty stroke for taking penalty area relief, which makes your score on the hole 14 a five. 

问题:你从发球区打出的球静止在红色罚杆区的泥泞部分。当你走向你的球时,你看到一只乌龟移动了你的球,使球滚落到水中。虽然拿回你的球既简单又迅速,但你为了避免弄脏鞋,将另一个球放置回被移动之前的地方,当你准备击球时,你对从泥地里打球有了不同的想法,你决定采取罚杆区补救。在采取补救措施后,你将球打到果岭上,然后又用两杆完成该洞。你在这洞的成绩是?

(a) 4
(b) 5
(c) 6
(d) 7

正确答案B

在第14洞的罚杆区发生了很多事情(如果你打了第二轮,你可能已经注意到我们的乌龟🐢朋友似乎把这球场当成家了),我们先提醒你回到第11洞,通常我们需要将原球放置回原位,但有时规则允许我们替换。

在本题的情况下,因为你的原球可以迅速而容易地取回,所以根据规则9.6,你必须使用原球进行操作。

但是,在不允许的情况下替换了球,究竟是什么触发了处罚呢?并非仅仅重置了另外一个球这个行为本身(就触发了处罚)。这种错误的替换是一种程序性违规,规则14.5给了你修正的机会,前提是你还没有击打该球。你对于打那个错误替换的球的新想法,也使你避免了那个一般性处罚。

要理解这一点,你需要比规则本身挖掘得更深入地一点,注意解析14.2/1明确指出,当你决定根据规则采取补救措施时,不需要你遵循规则9的重置要求–你反而可以直接跳入其他补救程序。

因此,为了在14号洞正确加分,你可以忘记规则9中的任何内容(以及那个错误的替换),只需确保计算你所有的实际击球杆数,以及采取罚杆区补救的罚杆,这使得你在14号洞的成绩为5杆。

Hole 15

Question: True or False: Your ball comes to rest in the fairway and you carefully set your bag down near your ball. While determining the yardage for your next shot, your bag falls over and moves your ball. You get no penalty for your ball being moved and are required to replace it on its original spot.

(a) True
(b) False

CORRECT ANSWER: A

On Hole 15, you’re reminded that anytime a ball at rest moves, the answer to, “what caused the ball to move?” is of critical importance. While the answer here might seem simple – it was your bag that moved it – this question gives you a good opportunity to appreciate how interconnected the Rules are. As you’ve learned previously, Rule 9.2 only recognizes four things that can be responsible for moving a ball at rest.

You should start by excluding which of the four things are clearly not responsible.

  • Your opponent (or his or her caddie): There’s no mention of any other players here (nor any mention of match play), so you can exclude an opponent (or his or her caddie) and Rule 9.5.
  • You or your caddie: You carefully set your bag down and you were getting your yardage when it fell over and moved your ball. So, we can also exclude Rule 9.4. If you are thinking you still bear some responsibility, know that had you dropped your bag on your ball, you would be considered to have caused it to move, but this question is drafted to create space (or time) between your placement of your bag and it subsequently falling over so it is your bag and not you that caused your ball to move. In between the facts of this question and you dropping your bag directly on your ball is the tipping point and there’s not a black and white line defined by the Rules. There is a nuance here that will at times require a committee’s judgment to decide if you are responsible, but that’s not the case here.

That leaves two other possible reasons for your ball’s movement: natural forces (Rule 9.3) or an outside influence (Rule 9.6). Interpretation 9.6/1 will help you figure out which of these two things will apply, noting that Rule 9.6 applies if wind causes an outside influence (in this question your golf bag) to move your ball.

In this case, while there’s no mention of wind, gravity (which is also a natural force) clearly factored into your bag falling over and can be substituted into the Interpretation to give the same result.

That gets us to Option A – True – because when your ball is moved by an outside influence there’s no penalty and the ball must be replaced.

问题:正确或错误。你的球停在球道上,你小心翼翼地把你的球包放在球的附近。在估计下一杆的码数时,你的球包倒了并导致你的球移动了。你没有因为你的球被移动而受倒处罚,你必需将球放置回原位。

(a) True
(b) False

正确答案 A

第15洞,提醒你一下,任何时候静止的球被移动,”是什么导致了球的移动?”这个问题的答案是至关重要的。虽然这里的答案看起来可能很简单–是你的球包移动了它–但这个问题给了你一个很好的机会来了解规则是如何相互关联的。正如你之前所学到的,规则9.2只承认有四种东西可以导致静止的球移动。

你应该先排除这四件事中哪些是明显没有责任的。

  • 你的对手(或他或她的球童)。这里没有提到任何其他球员(也没有提到比赛),所以你可以排除对手(或他或她的球童)和规则9.5。
  • 你或你的球童:你小心翼翼地将你的球包放下,你在获取你的码数时,球包倒了并导致了你的球移动。所以,我们也可以排除规则9.4。可能你仍然认为你要承担一些责任,因为你知道假如是你把球包(直接)掉在你的球上,这会被认定是你导致了球的移动。但这道题目的文字就是为了在你放置球包和它随后倒下之间创造一个空间(或时间),这样就是你的球包而不是你导致了你的球移动。在本题的情况和你把球包直接掉在你的球上这两个事实之间存在着一个临界点,规则中并没有对此定义一个非黑即白的界限。这里的细微差别有时需要委员会来判断你是否有责任,不过本题的情况不需要。

你的球的移动就剩了另外两个可能的原因了:自然力(规则9.3)或外部因素(规则9.6)。解析9.6/1将帮助你弄清这两种东西的哪一种适用,注意到如果风导致外部因素(在本题里指你的高尔夫球包)移动了你的球,则规则9.6适用。

在本题的情况下,虽然没有提到风,但重力(这也是一种自然力)显然是导致你的球包倒下的因素,可以在解析中将“风”换成“重力”,会得到同样的结果。

这让我们看到了选项A–真的–因为当你的球被外部因素移动时,没有任何处罚,必须把球放置回原位。

Hole 16 

Question: Your tee shot comes to rest in the general area next to a pine cone and near a sprinkler control box. You have a reasonable but risky shot over a penalty area in playing toward the green. While simulating your swing to see if you have interference from the sprinkler control box, your club accidentally hits the pine cone and causes your ball to move. You replace the ball on the spot it was moved from without replacing the pine cone next to it. The wind changes direction, so you decide to chip out into the fairway instead of playing toward the green. You hit your next shot onto the green and complete the hole in two more strokes. What is your score for the hole? 

(a) 5 
(b) 6 
(c) 7 
(d) 8 

CORRECT ANSWER: A 

Counting up your “talent strokes” here gets to five, which also happens to be the correct answer (Option A). 

The facts included in this question requires you to ignore two significant red herrings. 

The first, is when you accidentally caused your ball to move. There’s no question it was your actions that caused your ball to move, so Rule 9.4 applies and your ball will need to be replaced before you play. 

However, knowing if you get a penalty requires a good understanding of how Exception 4 to Rule 9.4b is applied. A reading of two important Interpretations (Interpretation 9.4b/4 and 9.4b/5) will quickly get you up to speed to ensure you don’t also include a penalty in your score because your actions occurred “while” taking “reasonable actions” in determining if relief is available. 

The second is whether or not you need to replace the pine cone next to your ball. This takes you to Exception 1 to Rule 15.1a, which notes that when a ball needs to be replaced, there are times when loose impediments may not be removed. But it also makes clear that the Exception does not apply to a loose impediment moved when a ball is moved. Such is the case for that pine cone.  

问题: 你的开球停在普通区,球紧挨着一颗松果并在喷水控制箱附近。(如果)你向着果岭打,你就会有一个合理但要越过一个罚杆区的风险击球,在模拟你的挥杆动作以观察是否有来自喷水控制箱的干扰时,你的球杆意外地击中了松果,导致了你的球移动。你把球重置到了它被移动前的地方,但没有将旁边的松果放回去。风向改变了,所以你决定将球切到球道上,而不是向果岭打。你的下一杆(将球)打到了果岭上,再用两杆完成了这个洞。你这个洞的成绩是多少杆? 

(a) 5 
(b) 6 
(c) 7 
(d) 8  

正确答案 A 

将你在这里的实际击球杆数加起来得到5,这也正好是正确的答案(选项A)。 

这个问题中包含的事实要求你忽略两条重要的线索。 

第一,是你不小心导致你的球移动的时候。毫无疑问,是你的行为导致了你的球移动,所以规则9.4适用,你的球需要在击球前放置回原位。 

然而,要知道你是否有处罚,需要很好地理解规则9.4b的例外4是如何应用的。阅读两个重要的解析(解析9.4b/4和9.4b/5)会让你迅速上手,以确保你不会在自己的成绩里加上处罚,因为你的行为是在判断是否可以补救而采取 “合理行动时 ”发生的。 

第二是你是否需要把你的球旁边的松果放回去。这就把你带到了规则15.1a的例外1,其中指出,当一个球需要被放置回原位时,有些时候散置障碍物不能移除。但它也明确指出,该例外情况不适用于当球被移动时导致散置障碍物被移走。在本题的案例下,那个松果就是这样的情况。 

Hole 17 

Question: In which one of the following do you get the general penalty for not replacing your ball, when information concerning the ball’s movement only becomes known to you or your caddie after the ball has been played? 

(a) Your caddie marks the spot of your ball, lifts it and replaces it on the putting green. As your caddie is walking away and you are looking at your scorecard, neither of you notice that a gust of wind moved your ball a short distance. 

(b) While you are looking at your yardage book, your caddie is removing a gallery stake about 30 feet away from your ball. In removing the stake, the rope connected to it becomes loose, drops to the ground, and hits and moves your ball. Neither you nor your caddie were aware the ball moved. 

(c) After playing from the tee and while walking with your caddie to your ball, you are not aware a spectator had lifted your ball from the rough where it came to rest and tossed it into the fairway. 

(d) While your opponent is searching for your ball and without you or your caddie noticing, the opponent moved your ball a short distance. 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

Hole 17 highlights a key part in the purpose statement of Rule 9: “players should take care when near any ball at rest, and a player who causes his or her ball to move … will normally get a penalty.” 

Further there are very few “hidden rules” in the Interpretations, noting our general messaging for their purpose is to provide guidance as to how to apply the Rules. Interpretation 9.2a/2 is a rare “rule maker” and it makes clear that if your (or your caddie’s) actions cause your ball to move, Rule 9.4 applies even if you do not have knowledge or virtually certainty of that occurrence. 

Armed with this important additional information, Hole 17 is pretty straightforward, noting that Option B is the only option in which you or your caddie were the cause of the movement. Not replacing before making your next stroke would earn you the general penalty. 

In all other options, because it is not known or virtually certain that your ball was moved when you made the next stroke, your ball is treated as having not moved and did not need to be replaced.  

问题:你或你的球童在打完球之后才知道球曾移动过的信息,在以下哪种情况下,你会因为没有将球放置回原位而受到一般性处罚?  

(a) 你的球童在果岭上标记了你的球位,拿起并将它放置回原位。当你的球童走开的时候,你正在看你的记分卡,你们都没有注意到一阵风把你的球移动了一小段距离。 

(b) 你正在看你的码数本,同时你的球童正在约30英尺之外移除一根围绳桩。在移开木桩的过程中,连接木桩的绳子松动了,掉到了地上,砸中并移动了你的球。你和你的球童都没有意识到球被移动了。 

(c) 从发球台发球后,你和你的球童走到你的球前,你们不知道有一个观众把你的球从它静止的长草里捡起来并扔到了球道上。 

(d) 你的对手正在寻找你的球,在你和你的球童没有注意到的情况下,对手将你的球移动了一小段距离。 

正确答案 B 

第17洞强调了规则9目的声明中一个关键部分:”球员位于任何静止中球附近时,都应该小心谨,通常情况下,如果球员导致自己的球移动……会受到处罚。” 

此外,在解析中有极个别的 “隐规则”,请注意我们想传递的整体信息是:它们(存在)的目的是为了提供如何应用规则的指导。解析9.2a/2是一个罕见的 “规则制定者”,它明确指出,如果你(或你的球童)的行为导致你的球移动,规则9.4适用,即使你不知道或不能几乎肯定该事件的发生。 

有了这些重要的补充信息,第17洞就非常直截了当了,注意到选项B是唯一一个你或你的球童导致了移动的选项。在进行下一次击球之前没有(把球)放置回原位将使你受到一般性处罚。 

在所有其他的选项中,由于在你进行下一次击球之时并不知道或不能几乎可以肯定你的球被移动了,你的球将被视为没有移动,不需要放置回原位。 

Hole 18 

Question: In which one of the following do you get one penalty stroke for lifting or moving your ball or ball-marker? 

(a) You mark the spot of and lift your ball from a bunker because it interfered with another player’s stance. The other player played and in doing so, worsened your lie, but did not move the ball-marker. You carefully try to re-create your original lie, but in doing so, you accidentally move the ball-marker. 

(b) Instead of using a coin, you mark the spot of your ball on the putting green with a tee and lift the ball. While another player’s ball is in motion, you lift the tee because you thought that the other player’s ball might hit it. 

(c) After the Committee has suspended play due to darkness, you mark the spot of your ball in tall rough with a tee and lift your ball. Prior to resuming play the next morning and while trying to relocate the tee, you accidentally kick the tee, moving it a short distance. 

(d) Your putt for a three stops just short of the hole and you believe your partner has a short putt left for a four. Frustrated, you swing your club at your ball and knock it off the putting green. Your partner misses his putt, taps-in and says, correctly, “that’s six.” You suddenly realize you were mistaken about your partner’s score, so you replace your ball next to the hole and hole out. 

CORRECT ANSWER: A or D 

Though we send our Short Course through multiple levels of review, both amongst rules team staff and some extraordinarily generous volunteers, Hole 18, unfortunately and apologetically, has one-and-a-half correct answers … when this was brought to our attention it immediately reminded us of a  phrase that the rules community often leans on in times like these: 

There are only two types of referees. Those who have made a mistake and those who will. We now place ourselves in the former group. 

While Option D clearly results in one penalty stroke under Rule 9.4 (because striking the ball in frustration was not an accident), our error was in leaving a key piece of information out of Option A – were you asked to lift your ball because it interfered with the other player? While we intended that answer to be yes, it’s not stated in the answer. As a result, both D and A were credited as correct answers. 

With that said, Option B was where we thought we would garner the most debate. In part because it  was a challenge simply to figure out which Rule applies. You did take a deliberate action to influence the movement of a ball in motion, and if you played the last round of the Short Course, you should be having some flashbacks to Rule 11. In Rule 11.3, the Exception allows any ball at rest and in play on the putting green to be lifted at any time, while ball-markers are specifically excluded. That action earns you a general penalty (loss of hole in match play or two strokes in stroke play) under Rule 11.3 and with the question specifically asking in which of the Options do you get one penalty stroke, that would seem to exclude Option B. 

However, what about the penalty for lifting your ball-marker? Normally, that would be one-penalty stroke under Rule 9.7b, but you need to look at the totality of what has happened here and visit our good friend Rule 1.3c(4), which is keen on providing a quantity discount. That’s the case here, where your single act (lifting your tee) resulted in multiple breaches (Rule 9.7 and its one penalty stroke and Rule 11.3 and its general penalty) and only the higher-level penalty applies. 

Finally, in Option C, the fact that your tee is moved during a suspension of play does not change the outcome. Note that Rule 9.1 starts with a statement that all of Rule 9 applies both during a round and while play is stopped under Rule 5.7d. 

Rule 9.7 covers the movement of a ball-marker, which your tee is in this situation, and the Exception to Rule 9.7b notes that situations where you are not penalized for moving your ball also apply to your ball-marker. Looking back to Rule 9.4b, there is not penalty if your ball is accidentally moved during search, so there’s also no penalty here.  

问题:以下哪种情况下,拿起或移动你的球或球标会被罚一杆? 

(a) 你在沙坑中标记了你的球位并拿起了球,因为它妨碍了另一个球员的站位。那名球员打了球,令到你的球位恶化,但没有移动球标。你小心翼翼地试图重新恢复初始球位时不小心移动了球标。 

(b) 你没有使用硬币,而是在果岭上用一支球座标记了你的球位并拿起球。当另一位选手的球在运动中时,你拿起了这支球座,因为你认为那选手的球可能会撞到它。  

(c) 委员会因天黑而暂停比赛后,你用球座在高长草里标定了你的球位并拿起了你的球。第二天早上恢复比赛前,在试图重新找回那支球座的过程中,你不小心踢到了那支球座,使其移动了一段距离。 

(d) 你的第三杆推短了,球刚好停在洞口前。你以为你的伙伴剩下一个短推就可以用四杆完成该洞,你很沮丧地把球杆挥向你的球,把球磕出了果岭。你的伙伴没有推进,把球轻敲进洞后正确地说出“打了6杆”。你突然意识到你搞错了你伙伴的成绩,所以你把你的球重置到洞口旁边,然后击球进洞。  

正确答案 A或D 

 虽然我们的Short Course经过了多层的审阅,既包括规则小组的工作人员也包括一些非常慷慨的志愿者,但遗憾和抱歉的是,18号洞有一个半的正确答案……当这个问题引起我们注意时,它立即让我们想起了规则界在这种时候经常倚重的一句话: 

只有两种类型的裁判。那些已经犯错的人和那些将要犯错的人。我们现在把自己归入前一类。 

虽然,根据规则9.4,选项D明显会导致罚一杆(因为沮丧地击打球不是意外),但是我们的错误是在选项A中遗漏了一个关键信息–那位受到妨碍的球手叫你拿起球了吗?虽然我们希望这个回答是 “是”,但在答案中却没有说明。因此,D和A都被列为正确答案。 

按理说,选项B我们认为会引起最多的辩论。部分原因是,要弄清楚哪条规则适用,是一个挑战。你确实采取了一个故意的行动来影响运动中球的运动,如果你做过上一轮Short Course的话,你应该会对规则11有一些印象。在规则11.3中,例外允许任何在果岭上处于静止状态的球在任何时候被拿起,而球标则被明确排除。根据规则第11.3条,这种行为会使你受到一般性处罚(在比洞赛中输洞或在比杆赛中罚两杆),而问题中特别问到在哪个选项中你会得到罚一杆,这似乎排除了选项B。 

然而,对拿起球标的处罚是什么呢?通常情况下,根据规则9.7b,这会是罚一杆。但你需要看一下这里发生的全部情况,并访问我们的好朋友规则1.3c(4),它热衷于提供数量折扣。本题就是这种情况,你的单一行为(拿起你的球座)导致了多重违规行为(规则9.7及其罚一杆和规则11.3及其一般性处罚),这里只需采用较高级别的处罚。 

最后,在选项C中,你的球座是在比赛暂停期间被移动这一事实并不会改变结果。请注意,规则9.1一开始就说明,规则9的所有内容在一轮比赛期间和根据规则5.7d停止比赛期间都适用。 

规则9.7涵盖球标的移动,在本题情况下,你的球座就是球标,而规则9.7b的例外指出,移动你的球不受罚的情况也适用于你的球标。回过头来看规则9.4b,如果你的球在搜索过程中被意外移动是没有处罚的,所以这里也不会有处罚。 

Short Course R3 F9

目录

The Practice Area: Introduction to Ball at Rest Lifted or Moved 

The game of golf is a series of strokes on each hole starting from the teeing area and concluding when the ball is at rest in the bottom of the hole. Generally, the ball must be played as it lies after each stroke and may not be touched until the hole is completed. Sounds simple right? If only the game and its Rules were that simple! 

Richard S. Tufts spoke to this in his 2nd great principle behind the Rules, which reads, “you put your ball in play at the start of the hole, play only your own ball and do not touch it until you lift it from the hole.” 

You can learn more about the principles that form the foundation to the Rules of Golf in his classic writing, The Principles Behind the Rules of Golf, which the USGA rules team is currently in the final stages of revising to match the modernized Rules of Golf and hopes to have available in early 2021. 

It’s this simple concept we’ll explore in the third round of The Short Course, primarily focusing on Rule 9. Keeping this principle in mind, you are generally expected to exercise caution around your ball in play, as well as your opponent’s ball in match play. And, if you cause your ball to move, you’ll almost always be required to replace it. We’ll see this theme repeat throughout this round. You’ll also learn about a number of exceptions that, though you still need to replace your ball before playing, will allow you to do so with getting a penalty stoke. 

As you continue warming up, let’s move your attention away from that bucket of range balls for a moment. If you’ve played The Short Course before, you’ve likely heard us stress the importance of understanding the definitions in the Rules of Golf. The definition of “move” is perhaps the best example to offer up on this point. The Rules define a ball as having moved only when it leaves its original spot and comes to rest anywhere else (noting, that move could be vertically upwards or downwards or horizontal movement). 

This also means that when the ball returns to its original spot, it has not moved. You’ve likely seen this during your own play, such as accidentally bumping your ball on the putting green and having it rock forward and then back, or when addressing your ball in the rough and your club compresses the grass at address and your ball drops slightly but rises back up to its original position when you remove your club. In both of these situations, while you might see your ball “move,” the Rules do not treat such as a ball as having “moved” because it did not come to rest in another spot. 

Further, “moved” also includes an additional standard referred to as the naked eye standard, which can be summarized to mean that if a person with normal vision couldn’t have seen the ball move, it didn’t move. This is further explained in Interpretation Moved/2 and creates a buffer to protect golfers, who are limited in what they can see, from the constant advances in technology, especially as it relates to high-definition video. 

Regrettably we didn’t include any questions on the naked eye standard in this round of the Short Course, but there was a great example during the PGA TOUR’s Memorial Tournament when the ball of Jon Rahm moved shortly before he made a stroke that provided a great example of how this standard can apply in the field (you can read more about this incident here). 

Back to your warmup, there’s two key questions that have to be answered when dealing with a ball at rest moved situation. The first is whether the ball moved. And the second is whether that movement was known or virtual certainty to have occurred. 

Knowledge or virtual certainty (sometimes called KVC by us Rules geeks) is another key definition, used in several places in the Rules, including twice in this topic. It is frequently misunderstood, and therefore often misapplied by golfers. Known of virtually certain is a very high standard for deciding what happened to a player’s ball such that there is either conclusive evidence that the event in question happened (like a witness saw it happen) or by using all readily available information, there is 95% certainty that is occurred. Knowledge or virtual certainty is not assuming or guessing what happened to the ball. In fact, it’s very much the opposite – it’s that there is little to no doubt what happened to the player’s ball. 

If you do have knowledge or virtual certainty that your ball moved, the next question is what caused the ball to move? Here the Rules recognize only four possibilities (natural forces, you (the player), your opponent in match play, or an outside influence), and in the Short Course, your job will often be figure out from the facts what or who caused it to move. The answer to that will directly you to a specific sub-Rule in Rule 9 that tells you how to proceed, and whether there is a penalty. 

In order to treat a ball as having been moved by the player, an opponent or outside influence, it must be known or virtually certain that was the cause (with one exception you’ll be sure to encounter on the Short Course). Otherwise, the Rules default to natural forces. 

Hopefully, you’ve taken in the definitions and concepts covered during your practice sessions and can reinforce that knowledge on the front nine. You’re likely to need it all once you make the turn. Good luck and play well, your group is on next on the tee. 

高尔夫运动是每个洞从发球区开始,通过一系列的击球,到球静止在洞底为止。一般来说,每一次击球后,球都必须在其现有的位置上继续打并且不能触碰,直到完成一洞。听起来很简单吧?如果游戏及其规则也这么简单就好了! 

理查德-S-塔夫斯(Richard S. Tufts)在规则背后的第2大原则中就谈到了这一点,他写道:你在一洞开始的时候把你的球置于比赛状态中,你只打你自己的球同时不要触碰它,直到你从洞内将它拿起来。 

你可以在他的经典著作《高尔夫规则背后的原则》中了解更多关于构成高尔夫规则基础的原则,目前USGA规则团队正在对该书进行最后的修订,以配合现代化的《高尔夫规则》,并希望能在2021年初推出。(希望归希望,5月了还是没有出来。–译者注) 

我们将在第三轮短杆球场中探讨的就是这个简单的概念,主要关注规则9。牢记这个原则:一般来说,你在你的比赛状态球周围都要小心翼翼,在比洞赛中围着对手的比赛状态球也一样。而且,如果你导致了你的球移动,你几乎总是被要求将它放回原位。我们会看到这个主题在本轮Short Course中反复出现。你还会了解到一些例外情况,那就是,虽然你仍需在击球前将球放回原位,但这只会在你被罚了一杆的情况下才可以。 

当你继续热身的时候,让我们暂时把你的注意力从那一练习球上移开。如果以前玩过USGA的短杆球场(Short Course),可能听过我们强调理解高尔夫规则中定义的重要性。”移动 “的定义也许是最好的例子。规则中定义,只有当球离开原地,停在其他任何地方时,才算移动(注意,这种移动可以是垂直向上或向下,也可以是水平移动)。 

这也意味着,当球回到原点时,它没有移动。可能在自己的比赛中看到过这种情况,比如在推杆果岭上不小心到了球,球向前晃了晃,然后又向后晃了回来;又或者在长草里准备击球时,的球杆压住了草,的球稍稍下坠,但当移开球杆时,球又升回到原来的位置。在这两种情况下,虽然你可能会看到你的球 “移动”,但规则并不将这视为球的 “移动”,因为它并没有停在了另一个地方。 

此外,”移动 “还包括一个额外的标准,称为肉眼标准,可以概括为如果一个人以正常的视力不可能看到球移动,(那么)它就没有移动。这一点在释义Moved/2中做了进一步的解释并建立了一个缓冲:(就是说)球手的责任只限于他们所能见到的。以此保护球手免受不断进步的科技—— 尤其是与高清视频带来的相关影响 

遗憾的是,我们没有在这一轮短杆赛中加入任何关于肉眼标准的问题,但是在PGA巡回赛的纪念赛期间,有一个很好的例子,Jon Rahm的球在他击球前不久移动了,这提供了一个很好的例子,说明这个标准如何在球场上适用(你可以在这里阅读更多关于这个事件的信息)。 

回到你的赛前热身,在处理静止状态下的球移动情况时,有两个关键问题必须要回答。第一个是球是否移动了第二个是那个移动是知道或几乎肯定发生了 

知道或几乎肯定(我们这些规则极客有时称之为KVC)是另一个关键的定义,在规则中多处使用,包括本主题中的两次。它经常被误解,因此经常被球手误用。知道或几乎肯定是一个很高的标准,用来决定球员的球发生了什么—— 要么是有确凿的证据表明有关事件发生了(比如目击者看到了),要么是利用所有现成可用的信息,有95%确定发生了。知道或几乎肯定不是假设或猜测球发生了什么事实上,它是非常相反的——是对球员的球发生了什么只有一点点或完全没有怀疑。 

如果确实知道或几乎肯定的球移动了,下一个问题是什么导致了球的移动?规则里只承认四种可能性(自然力,你(选手),比洞赛中你的对手,或外部因素),而在短杆赛中,你的工作往往是从事实中找出是什么或谁导致它移动。得出的答案将直接将你带到规则9中的其中一个具体的子规则,告诉你如何处理,以及是否有处罚。 

为了将一个球视为被球员、对手或外部因素造成的移动,必须知道或几乎可肯定是由球员、对手或外部因素造成的(有一个例外,你在短杆球场里一定会遇到的)。否则,规则默认为自然力。 

希望已经在练习环节中搞定了所涉及的定义和概念,并能在前九洞强化这些知识。一旦你转场,你很可能会需要这里全部的知识。祝好运,打好球,下一组开球的就是你们组了。 

Hole 1

Question: Believing that your ball lies on the putting green, you mark its spot and lift the ball. You then realize that the ball was not on the putting green. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) There is no penalty so long as you did not clean the lifted ball and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(d) You get two penalty strokes in stroke play and the ball must be replaced. 

CORRECT ANSWER: C 

There’s little question here as to what caused the ball to move (you). It’s what happens next that you’ll need to know. When your ball comes to rest on the putting green, you can always mark and lift your ball. But that doesn’t apply if you mistakenly think your ball is on the putting green. Operating in Rule 9.4, you’ll get one penalty stroke and must replace the ball. 

Throughout this Round, you’ll see a lot of references to Rule 14. Rule 14 can be thought of as the “how to” section in the Rules – it provides the procedures for you interactions with a ball. In Rule 9, marking, lifting, placing and replacing is used repeatedly, so we’ll regularly reference those procedures. As an example, when you see “replace,” Rule 14.2 is where you’ll find out how to do that in accordance with the Rules. If you’re using the USGA Rules of Golf App, you can just click the link, or if you’re using the published book, Rule 14 is a good one to bookmark. 

Hole 1 

问题:(因为)你相信你的球在果岭上所以你标记了球并拿起了。然后你意识到球其实不在果岭上,判定是什么? 

(a) 没有处罚,球必须放回原位 

(b) 只要你沒有把拿起的擦拭干净就不会被处罚,拿起的球必须放回原位 

(c) 你被罚一杆,该球必须放回原位。 

(d) 在比杆赛中你被罚两杆,该球必须放回原位。 

正确答案 c 

由于知道了是什么(你!)导致了球的移动这里没有什么大问题你需要知道的是接下来会发生什么。当你的球位于果岭上时,你可以随时标记并起你的球。但如果你误以为你的球位于果岭上,那(条规则)就不适用了。依照规则9.4操作,你会被罚一杆,球必须放回原位 

在本轮比赛中,你会看到很多关于规则14的内容。规则14可以被认为是规则中的 “怎么做 “部分–它规定了你与球互动的程序。在规则9中,标记、拿起、放置和重置(*放置回原位)被反复使用,所以我们会经常参考这些程序。例如,当你看到 “放置回原位”时,你会发现14.2是指导你根据规则要怎么做的地方。如果你使用的是USGA高尔夫规则APP,你可以直接点击链接,如果你使用的是规则书,规则14值得做个书签标记一下 

Hole 2 

Question: In which one of the following situations do you not get a penalty? 

(a) When attempting to mark the spot of your ball on the putting green, you drop your ball-marker on the ball, causing it to move. 
(b) You lift your ball from the putting green but forget to mark its spot first. 
(c) In preparing to make a stroke at your ball in the fairway, you accidentally move it with your clubhead. 
(d) While your ball lies in the general area, you deliberately touch it with your club, but it doesn’t move. 

CORRECT ANSWER: A 

Careful reading is needed to pick up on the many subtle differences this question is posing. If you can see them all, you’ll have seen you avoid the one penalty stroke under Rule 9.4b (Penalty for Lifting or Deliberately Touching Ball or Causing it Move) for only one of these actions. Either Exception 3 or 4 to Rule 9.4b will free you from a penalty in Option A. The putting green is a special place with many additional rights and privileges that you don’t have elsewhere on the course, including not getting a penalty for accidentally causing the ball to move. 

Exception 4 to Rule 9.4b will be frequently referenced in the round and allows you to proceed and apply the Rules knowing that accidentally causing your ball to move will not cost you a stroke. 

What about the other three choices? 

Option B at first glance seems to fall under Exception 3 for accidental movement on the putting green, but what is the accident here? Lifting the ball or forgetting to mark its position before doing so? It was no accident that your ball was moved, and failing to mark the spot, even if accidentally or out of forgetfulness will cost you a penalty stroke. 

Option C is a textbook example of accidentally causing your ball to move by failing to exercise enough caution, noting as well that your ball is not on the putting green so you can’t take advantage of Exception 3. 

In Option D, while you didn’t cause the ball to move, you did deliberately touch the ball in play, and this breaches the basic principle of not touching or moving the ball until the hole is completed, and is clearly prohibited by the open statement of Rule 9.4b. 

Hole 2 

问题: 下列哪种情况下,你不会受到处罚? 

(a)当你试图在推杆果岭上标记你的球位时,你的球标掉在球上,导致球移动了 

(b)你从果岭上拿起你的球,但忘了先标记它的位置。 

(c) 在球道上准备击球时,你的杆头不小心导致了球移动 

(d)当你的球位于普通区域时,你故意用球杆触碰它,但它没有移动。  

正确答案a

这个问题所提出的许多微妙的差异需要仔细阅读才能发现。如果你能全部看出来,你就会看到你其中只有一个动作避免了规则9.4b(拿起或故意触碰球,或导致球移动的处罚)下的罚一杆。无论是规则9.4b的例外3或4,都可以在选项A下令你免于处罚。 果岭是一个特殊的地方,有许多你在球场其他地方所没有的额外权利和特权,包括不会因为意外导致球移动而被处罚。 

规则9.4b的例外4在本轮比赛中会经常被引用,它让你知道应用规则时意外导致球移动不会让你付出一杆,从而可以放手进行处理。 

那其他三个选项呢? 

选项B乍一看,似乎属于例外3:在果岭上的意外移动。但这里的意外是什么?是拿起球还是在拿起球之前忘记标定球位?你的球被移动并不是意外,没有标记球位——即使是意外或出于遗忘,也会让你付出一杆的代价。 

选项C是一个教科书式的例子:于由没有足够的谨慎而意外地导致你的球移动,同时也注意到你的球不在推杆果岭上,所以你不能利用例外3。  

在选项D中,虽然你没有导致球移动,但是你确实故意触碰了正在打的球,这就违反了在该洞完成之前不得触碰或移动球的基本原则,并且很明显这是规则9.4b的公开声明所禁止的。 

Hole 3 

Question: Your approach shot comes to rest on the putting green, 15 feet from the hole. Another player’s approach shot then hits and moves your ball to a spot 20 feet from the hole and you see this happen. The other player plays from where his ball came to rest, and you also play your ball from where it came to rest (20 feet from the hole). What is the ruling? 

(a) You proceeded correctly and get no penalty. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke in both match play and stroke play. 
(c) In match play you lose the hole, and in stroke play you get two penalty strokes. 
(d) In stroke play, you get two penalty strokes and must play from the original spot before starting play of the next hole. If not, you are disqualified. 

CORRECT ANSWER: C 
 
If you played Round 2 of the Short Course (where we covered Ball in Motion Stopped or Deflected), you should know that the other player will play his or her ball from where it came to rest, without penalty. But enough about the other player, this question is about YOU. 

Your ball at rest was moved by another ball, and that other ball in motion is an outside influence. Once again, the Rules require you to replace your ball when it has been moved. 

If you had replaced it before playing, because it was moved by an outside influence, there would not have been a penalty. However, by playing from where the ball came to rest, you breached Rule 9.6 and played from a wrong place. That earns you a general penalty, and in this case, since you didn’t get a significant advantage by playing from the wrong place, you don’t have to correct the mistake – just play on and make your way to Hole 4. 

Hole 3 

问题:你上果岭的一杆让球静止在果岭上离球洞15英尺。然后你看着另一位球手打上果岭的球撞到并移动了你的球,使你的球到了离球洞20英尺的地方。那位球手从他的球静止的地方继续打,你也从你的球静止的地方(离球洞20英尺处)继续打。判定是什么? 

(a) 你处理正确,没有处罚 

(b) 在比洞赛和比杆赛中,你都被罚一杆。 

(c) 在比洞赛中你输了这个洞在比杆赛中你被罚两杆 

(d) 在比杆赛中,你被罚两杆,在下一洞开球之前你必须回到初始位置打球否则你被取消资格 

正确答案c 

如果你参加了短杆赛的第二轮比赛(在那里我们介绍了运动中的球被截停或变向),你应该知道,另一位球手将从球静止的地方打球,没有处罚。关于另一位球手的问题已经处理好了但这个问题是关于你的。 

你的球在静止状态下被另一个球移动了,而这一个运动中的球是一个外部因素。再一次,球被移动后规则要求你将它放置回原位。 

如果你在击球前已经把球放置回原位由于它是被外部因素移动的,那就不会有处罚。但是,你是从球静止的地方打的,违反了规则9.6,从错误的地方打球,那就导致了你得到了一般性处罚。在你的案例中,由于你从错误的地方打球并没有获得明显的利益,你不必纠正错误–只需继续打球,然后去4号洞。 

Hole 4 

Question: True or False: When your ball has been moved and you are required to replace it on its original spot, you get a penalty if you lift it from the new location without first marking its spot. 

(a) True 
(b) False 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 
 
As mentioned on Hole 1, it’s impossible to get through this round without referencing Rule 14. Rule 14.1a has the routine required for marking the spot of the ball, but that routine is only required when the ball is going back on the spot that you lifted it from. In this case, you are lifting the ball from “spot B” to replace it on “spot A” (the original spot the ball was moved from) so there’s no requirement to mark the ball before doing so. Get the ball back on the right spot and play on. 

问题:正确或错误: 当你的球被移动后,你必须把它放置回原位并且把这个球从被移动后的新位置拿起来的时候必须先标定球位否则罚一杆 

(a) 正确 

(b) 错误 

正确答案:B 

正如在1号洞中提到的,如果不参照规则14是不可能打完这一轮的。规则14.1a有标记球位的例行要求,但是这个惯例只是在你的球被要求放置回你拿起球的那一点才需要这样做在本题的案例中你从“B点”拿起的球要放回到“A点”也就是球被移动前的初始位置),所以拿起球之前并没有做标记的需求。把球放回正确的位置去,然后继续比赛。 

Hole 5 

Question: In Four-Ball, you see a ball in the general area that you believe to be a stray ball. You lift that ball and then realize it is your partner’s ball. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty to you or your partner and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) Your partner gets one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 

CORRECT ANSWER: C 

Ah … the ever-important principle of choosing your partner wisely! You are responsible for the actions your partner takes in relation to your ball and vice versa. 

Here, your partner is on the hook for one penalty stroke because you accidentally lifted his or her ball. And of course, the ball must be replaced. As a bonus insight, the ball may be replaced by either you or your partner. 

You may have noted that your careful reading of Rule 9 didn’t say anything about your partner. That’s because Rules 1-20 are written without reference to partners or other forms of play, so when you see Four-Ball or any other form of play (including team competitions), you’ll need to take a look to Rules 21-24, which modify Rules 1-20 as needed for these other forms of play. 

问题:在四球赛中,你看到一个球位于普通区域,你认为是一个无人认领的球。你拿起那个球,然后意识到这是你伙伴的球。判决是什么? 

(a) 你和你的伙伴都没有处罚,球必须放回原位。 
(b) 你被罚一杆,球必须放回原位。 
(c) 你的伙伴被罚一杆,球必须放回原位。 

正确答案: C 

…… 永恒的重要原则:明智地选择你的合作伙伴!伙伴对你的球的所作所为由你负责,反之亦然。 

在这里,你的伙伴因为你不小心拿起了他或她的球而难逃被罚一杆。当然,球必须被放回原位顺便赠送一句,球可以由你或你的伙伴放置回去 

你可能已经注意到,你仔细阅读的规则9并没有说到你的伙伴。这是因为规则1-20的编写没有包含伙伴或其他形式的比赛,所以当你看到四球或任何其他比赛形式(包括团队比赛)时,你需要看看规则21-24,它们根据其他比赛形式的需要来修改规则1-20。 

Hole 6 

Question: In stroke play, you and your partner are walking together to your tee shots. As your partner is approaching his ball in the rough, he accidentally kicks and moves your ball a few inches. Believing that the requirement to replace the moved ball is like other relief procedures, you replace another ball on the estimated spot and make your next stroke. How many penalty strokes do you get, if any? 

(a) 0 
(b) 1 
(c) 2 
(d) 3 

CORRECT ANSWER: C 

Hole 6 starts off feeling very similar to Hole 5. You get one penalty stroke because your partner caused your ball to moved and you’re required to replace your ball (based on your actions on Hole 5, we’ll leave it to you two to determine if your partner’s actions were really an accident and whether it’s time to call truce…). 

When the Rules require the ball to be replaced on the original spot, the original ball must be used (Rule 14.2a). By using another ball when you could have easily used the original (the question makes it clear that it was right there), you’ve upgraded the one penalty stroke you would have received to the general penalty. 

Rule 1.3c(4) provides guidance on how the Rules work when there’s been multiple breaches. In this case, causing the ball to move is a procedural breach and using another ball is a substitution breach. In this situation, because you had two related breaches, you earned a quantity discount – congratulations! 

You only get two penalty strokes (the general penalty) in stroke play. You may have heard this referred to as 1+2=2 in the past and this fits into Rule 1.3c(4) under “Combined Procedural and Substitution/ Wrong Place Breaches.”  

 Hole 6 

问题:比杆赛中,你和你的伙伴一起走向你们第一杆的落点。当你的伙伴在长草里接近他的球时不小心踢到了你的球并使它移动了几英寸。因为相信放置回原位的执行程序跟其他补救程序相同,你用了另一球放置在估计的位置上,然后打了一杆。你被罚多少杆-如果有罚杆的话? 

(a) 0 
(b) 1 
(c) 2 
(d) 3 

正确答案C 

6号洞一开始的感觉和5号洞非常相似。你得到一杆罚杆,因为你的伙伴导致了你的球移动,你被要求将球放置回原位(根据你在5号洞的行为,我们且让你们两个来判断你伙伴的行为是否真的是意外,又或是现在先不管这个……)。 

当规则要求你将那个球(the ball)放置回原位时,必须使用原球(规则14.2a)。当你很轻易就可以使用原球(题目清楚地表明它就在那里),而你却使用了另一个球时,你就获得了升级:把本来只罚一杆的处罚升级到了一般性处罚。 

规则1.3c(4)规定了当出现多重违规时该如何运作规则的指导。在本题的案例下,导致球移动是程序违规,使用另一个球是替换违规。在这种情况下,因为你有两次相关的违规行为,所以你获得了数量上的折扣–恭喜你! 

在比杆赛中,你只被罚两杆(一般性处罚)。过去你可能听说过这被称为1+2=2,这也符合规则1.3c(4)下的 “程序违规和替换球/错误的地方违规的结合”。 

Hole 7 

Question: Before playing your approach shot from the general area, you decide to change clubs. You toss the club you were holding toward your golf bag, but the club strikes the bag and then strikes and moves your ball. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) In stroke play, you get two penalty strokes and the ball must be replaced. 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

On Hole 7 you’ll need to refer back to one of the key questions from the practice area –  what caused the ball to move? By tossing the club towards your ball, it was you that caused your ball to move. That earns you one penalty stroke and requires your ball to be replaced. 

Keep this in mind as you prepare to make the turn. It may seem simple now, but things can change quickly on the Back Nine.  

Hole 7 

问题:在从普通区域打攻果岭的一杆之前,你决定更换球杆。你将手中的球杆抛向你的高尔夫球包,球杆不但击中球包,之后还击中并移动了你的球。判定是什么? 

(a) 没有处罚,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(b) 你被罚一杆,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(c) 在比杆赛中,你被罚两杆,那个球必须放置回原位。 

正确答案 

在7号洞,你需要参考练习区的一个关键问题–是什么导致了球的移动?通过将球杆向你的球的方向抛,那就是你导致了你的球移动。这将使你被罚了一杆,并需要将你的球放回原位 

请记住这一点以便为你的转场做好准备这一点现在看来很简单,但在后九洞,事情可能会迅速改变。 

Hole 8 

Question: In match play, your opponent plays from a greenside bunker, and the ball comes to rest three feet from the hole and on your line of play. While your opponent is raking the bunker, you mark and lift his ball without authority. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) You lose the hole. 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

You’ve probably already caught on that there are a number of important differences in the Rules between match play and stroke play. This is based on Tufts first working principle (again referencing The Principles Behind the Rules of Golf), which states, “in match play, only you and your partner are involved, but in stroke play every competitor in the field has an interest in the results of your play.” This first part of this principle gives your opponent’s ball a special status and means you’ll want to take extra care when around it, and in most situations, you may not move or touch it. This is one of those cases, and because you didn’t have his or her authority to lift it, you’ll need to add one penalty stroke to your score. 

问题:在比洞赛中,你的对手从果岭边的沙坑打球,球停在离洞口三英尺的地方,正好在你的打球线上。当你的对手还在沙坑中耙沙时,你在没有获得授权的情况下擅自标记并拿起了他的球。判决是什么? 

(a) 没有处罚,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(b) 你被罚一杆,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(c) 你输了这洞。 

正确答案B 

你可能已经明白,比杆赛和比洞赛在规则上有很多重要的区别。这是基于塔夫茨的第一个运作原则(再次参考《高尔夫规则背后的原则》),其中指出:”在比洞赛中,只有你和你的伙伴参与其中,但在比杆赛中,你的成绩与场上每一位比赛者都有着利益关系。” 这个原则的第一部分赋予你对手的球一个特殊的地位,意味着你在它周围时要格外小心,在大多数情况下,你不能移动或触摸它。这(道题)就是其中的一种情况,由于你没有他或她的授权去拿起它,你需要在你的成绩上加上一杆罚杆。 

Hole 9 

Question: True or False: During your backswing for a stroke from the fairway, your ball starts to move, but you continue your swing and make the stroke. If you make your next stroke from where the ball came to rest after playing the moving ball, instead of replaying the stroke, you get the general penalty for playing from a wrong place.  

(a) True 
(b) False 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

The Rules recognize that this great game creates an uncountable number of unexpected occurrences and Hole 9 serves as a just one example. You’ve learned repeatedly over the first 8 holes that a ball that is moved is always replaced. Here though on the 9th hole, your ball moves after you begin your backswing and you continue on and complete making your stroke. 

This is a rare exception where there’s no requirement to replace the ball because it can all happens so quickly – thus the Rules don’t require the ball to be replaced (this situation even allows you to play a moving ball without penalty!). 

Because there’s no requirement to replace, you haven’t played from a wrong place (also, while the question doesn’t ask this of you … you’ll know you are prepared for the challenge coming on the back nine if you know whether or not you get a penalty stroke if you had caused that movement).  

问题: 正确与错误 : 在你从球道击球,在上杆过程中,你的球开始移动,但是你继续你的挥杆并进行了击球。你在打完这个移动中球后,如果从球静止的地方进行下一次击球,而不是重新进行这次击球,你会因为从错误的地方击球而受到一般性处罚。 

(a) 正确 
(b) 错误 

 正确答案B 

规则》认识到这项伟大的游戏会产生难以计数的意外情况,第9洞只是一个例子。在前8个洞中,你已经反复学习过,被移动的球总是要放回原位。但在第9洞,你的球在你开始上杆之后才移动的,而你继续(挥杆)并完成了你的击球。 

这是一个罕见的例外,此处并没有要求放回原位,因为这一切往往发生得太快了–因此规则不要求这个球被放回原位(这种情况下甚至允许你打一个移动中球而不受罚!)。 

因为没有放回原位的要求,所以你没有从错误的地方打球(另外,虽然问题没有问你……但如果你知道 —— 假如是你导致了那个球的移动你会不会被罚杆的话,你已经为后九的挑战做好准备了)。 

USGA 题库第689题

这是USGA规则题库里面第689号题,是我很喜欢的一道题目。这道题要求读者对球的状态(ball status)理解透彻,继而可以正确运用适用的规则。搞清楚了这道题,很多困扰的规则问题也就搞清楚了。

比杆赛中,一位球员从18洞tee台开球,球进入了长草。他寻找了2分钟,找到一个处在很差球位的球。他认为这个球不可打,于是根据19.2b抛了球并将球打上了果岭。到了果岭上,他发现自己刚才打上来的那个球不是自己的球。 他折返回去刚才找球的地方,用30秒到时间找到了自己的球,球处于一个可以打的位置。他没有拿起这个球,直接把它打上了果岭并用2推完成了该洞。然后他来到交计分卡的帐篷,在交卡之前向记分员讲述了刚才那个洞的事情经过。他这个洞的成绩是:

选择答案:
a. 6
b. 8
c. 他必须回到tee台打第7杆
d. 他被取消资格

正确答案 c
Explanation Rule 18.1; Rule 14.7b(1); Rule 6.3b; Rule 6.3c, Interpretation 19.2/5

Windy’s Notes

      球员从tee台开球(第一杆)后,在长草中实际上没有找到自己的初始球,因此在抛球的当下球员是不知道自己初始球的位置的。也就是说,在初始球位置缺失的情况下,球员通过抛球的形式将另一个球至于比赛状态中(定义替换;R6.3b)的时候,规则视为他在执行一杆(罚一杆)加距离的操作(R18.1;19.2/5)。因此,球员采取19.2b向后延线的补救是在一个错误的地方打球,正确的地方应该是他上一次击球的地方(tee台)。鉴于tee台离长草区有很大的距离差距,这是一个严重错误,必须在下一洞开球前,或第18洞的话交卡前改正,并且必须向委员会汇报(R14.7b)。球员在错误的地方打球,比杆赛中获得一般性处罚(罚两杆)。罚过这两杆后,从错误的地方击打该球的一杆不算(R14.7b(3))。

得知这个球不是自己的,球员于是去寻找自己的球——初始球。由于球员之前已经将另一个球替换进来了,根据规则6.3b,初始球不再处于比赛状态,其属性已转化为一个错球。球员随后击打了这个错球(R6.3c,记住:错球从不离开地面,经过球员抛或放置的球不是错球而是替换球。),获得一般性处罚(罚两杆)且必须改正错误。罚过这两杆后,击打错球的一杆及之后对这个球的击打杆数都不算(R6.3c)。

至此,球员还是没有纠正错误,幸好这是最后一洞,他在交卡前汇报了情况,他依然有机会去改正(14.7b(1))。他必须回到正确的地方(tee台)进行下一次击球,可以使用任何一个球,这是他的第7杆。

关于T型表

      来美后第一次参加裁判会议,我就发现凡涉及杆数计算,所有裁判都会抓起笔给我画T型表,后来知道这是USGA的科普结果。我这里也给大家分享一下这道题的T型表,左边S是实际击打杆数,右边P是罚杆。这个表简单快捷易用,关键是在防止错漏方面很有帮助,反正我现在是离不开了。熟练以后只写杆数即可,很多裁判都是这样,也可以写上一些帮助自己理解或解释的短语/缩写之类的。

Short Course R2 B9

目录

特别感谢David对第二轮规则11翻译工作的义务支持!

Making the Turn and the Back Nine

(Questions 10-18) 

As you walk toward the 10th tee you quickly read a sign that has been conspicuously posted, “the back nine of the Short Course is extremely difficult and is only recommended for those with advanced knowledge of the Rules, and those willing to invest the time to get there.” 

转场往后9(习题10-18): 

你走向第10号洞的路上,你快速阅读了一个被贴在显眼的标牌:Short Course的后九洞难度极大,只推荐给那些对规则有高级知识的人,以及那些愿意投入时间到达那里的人。 

Hole 10 

Question: Your ball and a practice ball from the nearby practice area are both at rest on the putting green. You putt, and your ball accidentally hits the practice ball on the putting green. What is the ruling in stroke play? 

(a) There is no penalty and you must play your ball as it lies. 
(b) There is no penalty. Your stroke does not count and the original ball or another must be replaced on its original spot. 
(c) You get two penalty strokes and must play the ball as it lies. 
(d) You get two penalty strokes. Your stroke does not count and the original ball or another must be replaced on its original spot. 

你的球和一个从附近练习场打过来的练习球停在果岭上。你推杆时,你的球意外地碰到了果岭上的练习球。在比杆赛中的判定是什么? 

(a) 没有处罚,你必须在球的现有位置继续打。

(b) 没有处罚。你的该次击球无效,必须将初始球或另一个球放回初始位置。

(c) 你得到两杆处罚,必须在球的现有位置继续打。

(d) 你得到两杆处罚,你的该次击球无效,必须将初始球或另一个球放回初始位置。

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

Hole 10 “welcomes” you to the back nine. There’s a tremendous amount going on in this question and it requires that you correctly apply both Rule 11.1a and Rule 11.1b, including both of their Exceptions. As mentioned in Hole 4, both parts of Rule 11.1 always apply to accidental deflections. 

Starting with Rule 11.1a, you must determine if this is a penalty situation. While the Exception to Rule 11.1a might appear to apply, the Exception applies only in stroke play when the player’s ball in play hits another player’s ball that is in play. The practice ball from the nearby practice area is not a ball in play, which means there is no penalty. 

We’ll explore one of the Rule’s deepest “rabbit holes” in another round, when we look at the different statuses the ball can have. But, for now, there’s already another group on the 10th tee and we don’t want to unreasonably delay play). 

In short, the Definition of “in play” clarifies both that the practice ball is not in play and also that when the Rules refer to a ball at rest, that means a ball that is in play. 

Next, you need to determine the correct procedure for where to play from (Rule 11.1b). You already know the practice ball is not a ball in play, but did you pick up on the fact that it is a movable obstruction? 

Because your ball accidentally hit a movable obstruction after a stroke from the putting green, Exception 2 to Rule 11.1b applies and you need to play again without penalty. 

10 号洞”欢迎 “你来到后九。这道题千头万绪,需要你正确应用规则11.1a和规则11.1b,包括它们的例外。正如在第4洞中提到的,规则11.1的两个部分始终适用于意外变向。 

我们从规则11.1a开始,你必须决定这个情况是否需要处罚。规则11.1a的例外情况看似适用,不过该例外情况只适用于比杆赛中,球员的比赛状态球撞到了另一个球员的比赛状态球。附近练习场打来的练习球并不是比赛状态球,这意味着没有处罚。 

当我们看待一个球时,它可以处于不同状态,不过我们之后会在另一轮中探讨这个规则里面 其中一个“最扑塑迷离狡兔窟”。现在,10号发球台上已经有另一组人了,我们不想无理地拖延比赛。 

简而言之,”比赛状态 “的定义既明确了一个练习球不在比赛状态中,也明确了当规则提及一个静止中球或运动中球时,其意思是这个球处于比赛状态。 

接下来,你需要决定正确的处理程序-从哪里继续打(规则11.1b)?你已经知道这个练习球不是比赛状态的球,但是你有没有发现它是一个可移动妨碍物? 

因为你的球在从果岭击球后意外撞到了可移动妨碍物,所以规则11.1b的例外情况2适用,你需要重打而不受罚。 

Hole 11 

Question: In which one of the following do you not get a penalty for lifting the branch while a ball is in motion? 

(a) You lift a branch to prevent the ball from hitting it, but the ball stops short of where the branch had been at rest. 
(b) You lift a branch to prevent the ball from hitting it and the ball rolls over the spot where the branch had been at rest. 
(c) In preparing to make your next stroke, you lift a branch so it’s not on your line of play. Another player’s ball rolls over the spot where the branch had been at rest. 

运动中时,你起了根树枝,以下哪种情况不会受到处罚? 

(a) 你起一根树枝以防止球撞到它,但球却在到达树枝所在的地方之前停下了。
(b) 你捡起一根树枝以防止球撞到它,随后球滚过了树枝所在的地方。
(c) 在准备进行下次击球时,你捡起一根树枝,使它不在你的打球线上。随后另一球手的球滚过了树枝所在的地方。 

CORRECT ANSWER: C 

Hole 11 revisits the concept you saw on a few front nine holes (Holes 1, 6 and 8). Unlike Rule 11.2, Rule 11.3 is not an outcome-based Rule. Rather, it prohibits specific deliberate actions only and does not consider whether the action was successful. 

As a reminder, it prohibits you from moving objects out of the way to affect where a ball in motion might come to rest. 

Rule 11.3 uses a different standard than the outcome-based Rule 11.2 because the Rules themselves address very different deliberate actions. 

In Rule 11.3, which prohibits lifting or moving objects out of the way of a moving ball, it would be very problematic to determine whether a breach has occurred based on whether your deliberate actions actually had an effect on where your ball in motion came to rest. 

Compare this to Rule 11.2, which again is about putting objects or yourself in the way, where a simple determination can be made 

Further, there’s another principle in the Rules as it relates to why penalties exist in the first place – the penalty for breaching a particular Rule is set to offset any potential advantage you might gain by breaching that Rule. In Rule 11.2, we can easily determine whether you gained an advantage, and a penalty therefore only applies if you do. Because that’s not something that can be determined with confidence in Rule 11.3, the penalty applies based solely on you taking the deliberate actions prohibited by the Rule. 

All of that means, both options A and B result in a penalty because you moved the branch to prevent the ball from hitting it – any further information is superfluous. In option C, you moved the branch to prepare for your play, which is allowed under Rule 15.1a (Removal of Loose Impediment). And, because you did not move it to deliberately affect where your ball in motion might come to rest, Rule 11.3 does not apply to you.  

11号洞重温了你在前九洞(168号洞)看到的概念。与规则11.2不同,规则11.3不是“结果为本”的规则。相反,它仅仅禁止特定的故意行为,考虑该行为是否成功。 

提醒一下,它禁止你把物体移开,以影响一个运动中的球可能停在哪里。 

规则11.3使用的标准与结果为本的规则11.2不同,因为这两条规则本身所处理的故意行为非常不同。 

在规则11.3中,禁止将物体拿起或移离运动中球的路径,基于这点(物体已被移走-译者注)去判定你的故意行为是否确实影响到你运动中的球停留下的位置,从而违反了规则,这样的判定相当棘手。 

对比一下规则11.2,是关于将物体或自己放在路径上,基于这点(物体在那里-译者注)作出判定比较简单。 

再推进一步,规则中另有一个首当其冲的原则谈及为什么存在处罚对违反特定规则的处罚是为了抵消你可能因违反该规则而获得的任何潜在利益。在规则11.2中,我们可以很容易地确定你是否获得了利益,处罚也只有在你获得了利益的情况下才会适用。在规则11.3中,因为没有任何东西在那里,令到判定否获利没有把握,所以处罚的采用纯粹基于你故意采取了该规则所禁止的行为。 

所有这一切意味着,选项AB的结果都要处罚,因为你移动树枝是为了防止球到它任何进一步的信息都是多余的。在选项C中,你移动树枝是为了准备打你的球,这是规则15.1a(移除松散障碍物)所允许的。而且,因为你移动树枝不是为了故意影响你运动中的球可能停在哪里,所以规则11.3对你不适用。 

Windy’s Note: 

R2#11 的解释对于理解规则11.211.3的区别非常重要。这里不仅阐述了一个是移入,另一个是移出的重大区别,而且告诉你为什么这个区别导致了结果为本动机为本两种不同的执行理念。 

        11.2结果为本——如果移入之后没有发生碰撞,那么球走了其自然路径球员没有获得额外的利益,这样规则就无需作进一步的处理,也就是没有犯规就没有伤害(英谚 no harm no foul)        
      如果移入之后成功发生碰撞,那么故意违规的奸计得逞从而球员获得了利益,而且是人赃俱在,很容易就确认了违规事实。所以11.2是否发生了碰撞的结果来判定是否违规并施加处罚。 

        11.3动机为本—— 由于是将物件移走,证物在球的路径范围消失了,球会不会撞上这个物件的答案就成为了没有实锤的悬案,判断球手有没有获得潜在利益变得非常棘手 。故此规则认为这样的情况下就不宜从结果的角度去执行,反而从动机的角度去执行可以较好地保持一致性。

        读者可以使用下表,对应现场发生的情况来逐一打勾。当打勾的情况与下表相符时一般​就要施加处罚了。但是千万不要忘记了例外!如果情况属于11.2的两个例外(11.2a和11.2b各一个)和11.3的一个例外则没有处罚。

Hole 12 

Question: True or False: You make a stroke from a deep greenside bunker to an elevated green. Although you can no longer see your ball, you assume it came to rest on the putting green. However, while retrieving a rake from just outside the bunker, your ball starts to roll back toward you. Another player alerts you to this and, to prevent the ball from rolling back into the bunker, you place the rake down on the ground in the path of the ball. The ball bounces over the rake without hitting it, and comes to rest back in the bunker. You get the general penalty for putting the rake down on the ground to try to deflect or stop your ball in motion. 

(a) True 
(b) False 

你从一个果岭边的深沙坑一个高起的果岭击球。虽然你已经看不到你的球,但你认为它停在了果岭上。然而,当从沙坑外取回沙耙时,的球开始向着你往回滚。另一个球员提醒了你,为了防止球滚回沙坑,耙放在球的运动路径上。球没有碰到沙耙而是耙上回到并静止在沙坑中。你因为耙放在地上,试图让你的球在运动中转向或停止而受到一般性处罚。 

(a) 正确
(b) 错误

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

You now need switch mindsets to apply the standard of deliberate deflections in Rule 11.2, where it’s practical to apply a penalty based on the outcome of that deliberate action. As you learn more about the Rules, you’ll continue to grow more comfortable identifying which Rule applies, and a big part of correctly doing this is being able to recognize the differences and similarities between them. 

If you only scanned Hole 11, you might circle back to read the explanation about why Rule 11.2 and 11.3 are treated differently. 

With that foundation, you should see that the deliberate action you’ve taken here on Hole 12 is closest to that which is prohibited under Rule 11.2. But, while you did place the rake to deflect your ball, hoping it would not roll back into the bunker, Rule 11.2 only applies if you are successful in doing so. Since the ball did not strike the rake, Rule 11.2 doesn’t apply. Good luck getting your next stroke out of the bunker.  

你现在需要转换一下思维方式来适应规则11.2中故意变向的标准,故意动作的结果来施加处罚,(这个标准)是很实用的。随着你对规则的了解越来越多,你会不断地更加自如地识别哪条规则适用,而正确做到这一点的重头戏就是能够识别它们之间的异同。 

如果你只浏览了第11洞,可能要回过头阅读一下为什么规则11.211.3被区别对待的解释。 

有了这个基础,你应该会发现,你在12号洞这里采取的故意行为最接近规则11.2所禁止的行为。但是,虽然你确实放置了希望它使你的球变向而不会滚回沙坑,但规则11.2你成功地做到了(这个结果)才适用。由于球没有击中耙,规则11.2就不适用。祝你下一杆出沙坑。 

Hole 13 

Question: In playing from above the hole on a steeply sloped putting green, you hit your putt a little too hard.  The ball misses the hole, rolls down the slope and then off the green. The ball bounces off a turtle and comes to rest in the rough. You make the next stroke from where the ball came to rest after the deflection. The original stroke was made 30 feet from the hole, and the stroke after the deflection is made 20 feet from the hole. What is the ruling in stroke play? 
 
(a) You proceeded correctly and get no penalty. 
(b) You get two penalty strokes and must continue with the ball that was played 20 feet from the hole. 
(c) You get two penalty strokes and, because you should have replayed the stroke, you must make the next stroke from the spot of the original stroke (30 feet from the hole). 

你从球洞上方的陡峭果岭上击球,推得有点过猛。 球错过了球洞,滚下斜坡出了果岭。球撞到了一只乌龟,弹起并停在了长草里。你球被变向后静止的地方击了球。你之前的击球位置距离洞口30英尺,被变向后的击球位置距离洞口20英尺。在比杆赛中的判定是什么? 
 
(a) 你处理正确,没有处罚。 
(b) 你被罚两杆,并必须继续打那个从离球洞20英尺处打出的球。 
(c) 你被罚两杆,因为你应该重打的,所以你必须回到初始位置(离洞口30英尺处)进行下一次击球。 

 CORRECT ANSWER: A 

You’ve left your approach shot in a less than ideal position and, try as you might, you’ve putted clean off the green. It’s clear this deflection was an accident under Rule 11.1a, so there’s no penalty to you. 

But, navigating Rule 11.1b and its various Exceptions is the complexity of the hole. Exception 2 to Rule 11.1b applies when you play a ball from the putting green and accidentally hit any animal (as well as some other things) that are on the putting green. You must trust the words as written and apply them accordingly – easier said than done. 

Because the accidental deflection occurred off the putting green, the Exception does not apply. Therefore Rule 11.1b applies, and your ball is played as it lies.   
 

你攻果岭的一杆将你置于一个不太理想的位置,尽管你尽了力,还是将球推出了果岭。这就清楚明瞭了:这次变向是个意外,属于规则11.1a的情况,因此对你没有处罚。 

但是,掌控规则11.1b及其各种例外是这一洞的复杂之处。规则11.1b的例外情况2适用于当你从推杆果岭上击球,意外碰到了果岭上的任何动物(以及其他一些东西)。你必须相信面前的白纸黑字,并正确运用它们—— 真是说来容易做来难呀。 

因为意外变向发生在果岭之外,例外不适用。那就是说,规则11.1b生效,你在球现有的位置打球。 

Hole 14

Question: Your tee shot comes to rest in the pocket of a spectator standing in the general area. Which one of the following is false?

(a) When taking relief, you may drop the original ball or another ball.
(b) The reference point is the point right under where your ball first came to rest in the spectator’s pocket.
(c) You must drop a ball as near as possible to the reference point, but not nearer the hole.
(d) Your relief area is limited to the general area.

CORRECT ANSWER: C

As with all games, their respective Rules need to tell players what to do. Hole 14 reminds us why the Rules of Golf can’t fit onto a notecard or into a brochure – that little white ball can come to rest in some pretty unusual places.

This is our first look at applying Exception 1 to Rule 11.1b. A fundamental principle of golf is that you play the ball as it lies, and while that works most of the time, it doesn’t provide you any help here. In this situation (and anytime your ball comes to rest in or on a person), you are not allowed to play your ball as it lies and must take relief according to the Rule.  

The 2019 Rules never require you to drop a ball on a specific spot (that’s another rare absolute) – dropping will always involve a relief area. That quickly points to option C as the false (and therefore the correct) answer.

The rest all come from a quick read through the relief procedure in Exception 1 to Rule 11.1b and the dropping Rule, Rule 14.3. You’ll see that the three other options are all part of how you take relief in this situation.

A bonus insight on a frequently asked question – there are only two times when you can measure two club-lengths from the reference point when dropping into a relief area.

  • When taking lateral relief from a red penalty area or
  • When you take lateral relief for an unplayable ball.

All other relief areas are one club-length only, as measured from the reference point. 
 

问题:你从发球台打出的球落在了一名站在普通区域的观众的口袋里,以下哪项是错误的?

(a) 采取补救时,你可以使用你的初始球或另一个球来抛球。
(b) (补救)参考点是指你的球首先静止在观众口袋里的正下方的那个点。
(c) 你必须在尽可能靠近参考点、且不更靠近球洞处抛一个球。
(d) 你的补救区仅限于在普通区域里。

正确答案 C

就像所有的游戏一样,它们各自的规则需要告诉球员该怎么做。第14号洞提醒我们为什么高尔夫规则不能放在一张记事卡或一本小册子上–那颗小白球可以停在一些非同寻常的地方。

这是我们第一次看规则11.1b例外1的应用。高尔夫球的一个基本原则是,你要在现有的球位下打球,虽然这在大多数时候是有效的,但在这里并不能给你提供任何帮助。当下这种情况(以及任何时候你的球停在人身内或在人身上),你不允许在现有的球位打球,你必须根据规则采取补救。

2019年的规则从不会要求你在一个特定的点上抛球(这绝对是另一个罕见的情况)–(2019新规)抛球一定会有一个补救区。这很快就指出C选项是错误的(因此也是正确的)答案。

其余的都来自于快速阅读规则11.1b例外1的补救程序和规则14.3的抛球规则。你会发现,其他三个选项都是指导你在这种情况下如何采取补救的一部分(条款)。

这里给大家“赠送”一个常见问题的答案灵感:当你在补救区抛球时,仅有两种情况下你可以从参考点量两杆。
~ 从红色罚杆区采取侧面补救,或
~ 你宣布不可打之球并采取侧面补救

除此之外的所有补救区都是从参考点量一杆,只量一杆!

Hole 15

Question: Which one of the following statements is true about Rule 11.3 (Deliberately Moving Objects or Altering Conditions to Affect Ball in Motion)?

(a) You get a penalty under Rule 11.3 only when the movement of a ball is affected by your prohibited deliberate action。
(b) You get a penalty under Rule 11.3 if you take a prohibited deliberate action to affect a ball in motion.
(c) Rule 11.3 does not apply if your prohibited deliberate action is taken when a ball starts rolling on its own and not as the result of a stroke.


CORRECT ANSWER: B

The ease of this hole rests on your understanding of Rule 11.3. As referenced on previous holes, this Rule is concerned only about your deliberate action to affect where a ball in motion might come to rest, and its application does not depend on whether your action was successful. If that’s clear to you, option B should jump out as the right answer.

Option C might look correct, but if you look to the very beginning of Rule 11 (right after the purpose statement), you’ll see that Rule 11 applies anytime a ball is in motion (whether after a stroke or otherwise). You’ll also see there that there is one time when you wouldn’t use this Rule if a ball in play was deflected or stopped, and that is when you are dropping a ball to take relief, in which case you would use Rule 14.3 (Dropping Ball in a Relief Area). 

问题:关于规则11.3 (故意移动物件或改变环境以影响运动中球),以下哪项是正确的?

(a) 只有当球的运动受到你被禁止的故意行为的影响时,你才会被规则11.3处罚。
(b) 只要你采取了被禁止的故意行为去影响运动中的球,你就会受到规则11.3的处罚。
(c) 如果你的被禁止的故意行为是在球自己开始滚动时,而不是在击球后, 则规则11.3不适用。

正确答案: B

本洞的容易程度取决于你对规则11.3的理解。正如前几洞所提到的,这条规则只涉及你故意影响运动中球可能静止在哪里的行为,它的应用并不取决于你的行为是否成功。如果你清楚这一点,B选项应该当选为正确答案。

选项C可能看起来是正确的,但是如果你看规则11的最开始(就在目的声明之后),你会发现规则11适用于任何运动中的球(不管是在击球后还是其他情况下)。你还会看到,如果比赛状态球被变向或停止,有一种情况你不会使用这条规则,那就是你采取补救抛球的时候,在这种情况下,你会使用规则14.3(在补救区内抛球)。

Hole 16

Question: Which one of the following scenarios results in you or another player getting a general penalty under Rule 11?

(a) While reading your line of play on the putting green, you place some clubs beyond the hole. Another player informs you that those clubs are in a position to stop your ball from going into an adjacent penalty area if hit too hard. Although you acknowledge that this could happen, you leave your clubs there anyway and make your next stroke. Your ball does end up rolling past the hole, bounces off one of your clubs, and comes to rest in the penalty area.


(b) In determining how to play a downhill putt, you notice the preceding group left a bunker rake in a position just off the green and next to a bunker. Even though you can see this might stop your ball from going into that bunker, you decide to leave it in that position. You make the stroke and your ball is stopped by the rake, likely preventing it from ending up in the bunker.


(c) You place your bag on the opposite side of the green in the rough, and just short of a penalty area. Before playing a chip shot from just off the putting green, you notice that your bag is in a position that could stop your ball from going into that penalty area if you hit it too hard. You make the stroke without moving your bag and, while your ball is in motion, your opponent moves your bag out of the way and your ball comes to rest in the penalty area.

CORRECT ANSWER: A

Is placing an object for the purpose of deflecting a ball the same as realizing an object you placed might deflect your ball before making a stroke? What about seeing an object left by someone else might help you? Hole 16 requires that you untangle this web.

This is the first time we’ve had to dip into the Interpretations for some additional guidance to better understand what deliberately deflected or stopped means in Rule 11.2 – Interpretation 11.2a/1 provides that guidance and clarifies that if you realize before making a stroke that an object you positioned may deflect or stop the ball, Rule 11.2a will apply if your ball then hits it. That fits the fact set of Option A.

We can dig a little deeper here into the other two options, both of which would not result in a penalty under Rule 11.

A fundamental principle of the game is playing the course as you find it, and this is what happens in Option B. You’ve simply left an object placed by someone else, and by doing so you are playing the course as you found it.

Lastly, Option C requires an understanding of Rule 11.2 (for you) and Rule 11.3 (for your opponent). As it relates to you, remember that Rule 11.2 requires your devious act to succeed, but your opponent has “foiled” your plan so that your ball will end up in the penalty area (perhaps unknowingly saving you the general penalty in the process … if you’re wondering … yes, we get calls like this on occasion too!)

As it relates to the opponent’s actions, Rule 11.3 prohibits most objects from being deliberately moved out of the way, but you’ll recall from Holes 1 and 6 that there are few items that can be moved, and any player equipment is included in these items.

问题:以下哪种情况会导致你或另一名球员受到规则11的一般性处罚?

(a) 当你在果岭上看你的打球线时,你把一些球杆放在洞的后方。另一位球手告诉你,如果打得太用力,这些球杆可以阻挡你的球进入邻近的罚杆区。虽然你承认这种情况可能发生,但你还是把球杆放在那里,然后进行了下一次击球。你的球最终还是滚过了球洞,击中你的一根球杆,弹进并停在了罚杆区内。

(b) 在决定如何推下坡推杆时,你注意到前一组人将沙耙留在了果岭外和沙坑之间的位置。尽管你看到这可能会阻挡你的球进入沙坑,你还是决定把它留在那个位置。你击球后,你的球被沙耙拦住了,看似阻止了它进入沙坑。

(c) 你把你的球包放在果岭另一边的长草区,离罚杆区很近。在从果岭边切球之前,你注意到如果你打得太大,你的球包所处的位置可能会阻挡你的球进入罚杆区。你在没有移动球包的情况下进行了击球,当你的球在运动中时,你的对手将你的球包移开,你的球停在了罚球区。

正确答案: A

为了使球变向而有目的地放置一个物体,和在击球前意识到自己放置的物体可能会让球变向是一样的吗?看到别人留下的物体可能会帮助你呢?16号洞需要你解开这张迷网。

这是我们第一次不得不深入到《释义》中寻求一些额外的指导,以便更好地理解规则11.2中故意变向或停止的含义–《释义》11.2a/1提供了该指导并澄清了:如果你在击球前意识到你放置的物体可能会使球变向或停止,且你的球随后击中它,规则11.2a将适用。这符合选项A的陈述事实。

我们可以在这里更深入地探讨一下另外两个选项。根据规则11,这两个选项都不会导致处罚。

高尔夫的一个基本原则是按球场的现有状况打球,这就是选项B中的情况。你就是将一个别人放置的物品留在原处,这样做就是按球场的现有状况打球。

最后,选项C要求理解规则11.2(对你而言)和规则11.3(对你的对手而言)。对你而言,请记住规则11.2要求你的狡猾行为成功,但你的对手已经 “挫败 “了你的计划,所以你的球将最终进入到罚杆区(也许在这个过程中你不知不觉地规避了一般性处罚……如果你好奇想知道……是的,我们偶尔也会接到这样的电话!)。

关于对手的行为:规则11.3禁止大多数物体被故意移开,但你会记得第1洞和第6洞,有少数的物品允许被移动,其中就包括了所有的球员装备。

Hole 17 

Question: You make a stroke and your ball in motion is stopped or deflected. It is estimated that your ball would have come to rest in the hole had it not been deflected. In which one of the following scenarios are you considered to have holed out? 
 
(a) Your stroke from the putting green is in motion and inches from the hole  when your opponent, who was not aware you had played, walks across your  line and accidentally deflects it. 

 
(b) You and your partner hit good approach shots to the putting green and both have a chance at birdie; yours is from 30 feet and your partner’s is from inside three feet. You make your stroke and while the ball is in motion and inches from the hole, your partner, who is confident of making birdie as well, jokingly stops your ball just before it begins to fall into the hole. 

 
(c) In stroke play, you make a stroke from the putting green at about the same time as another player in your group chips from the fringe. Your ball is on line with and just short of the hole when the other player’s ball strikes yours. The other player’s ball ends up in the hole and yours is deflected and comes to rest a few feet away. 

 
(d) In stroke play, your stroke from the rough just off the putting green is in motion on the putting green and headed directly toward the hole when it is deliberately deflected by another player. 

 
CORRECT ANSWER: D 

With Hole 17, if you “got it” right away, you already knew the only possible correct answer as soon as you finished reading the question. It was just a matter of finding it amongst the four options. 

Hole 9 was a similar situation, where your ball was deliberately deflected and you played your next stroke based on the location from where the ball was estimated to have come to rest (although on Hole 9 you took relief from the red penalty area instead, just before you asked if you could have another caddie at the turn). 

For both Hole 9, and here on Hole 17, you need to look to Rule 11.2c to find the correct answer. 

The only time we use this unusual procedure in the Rules (that is, estimating where the ball would have come to rest if not deflected or stopped) is when a deliberate deflection has occurred and your stroke was made from anywhere other than the putting green. 

In Option A, the deflection is accidental so you can immediately eliminate that as a correct answer. This is covered under Exception 2 to Rule 11.1b, which tells you to play again from the same spot, and without penalty. 

Further, in Options B and C, because your stroke was played from the putting green and there was a deliberate deflection, Rule 11.2c requires that you take relief –  your stroke does not count and you’ll need to play again from where you just played. 

That leaves only Option D. In looking at the fact set, you made a stroke from off the putting green, your ball was deliberately deflected while it is in motion and it is estimated that the ball would have come to rest in the hole. 

While some will look to Rule 11.2c and ask where it states that the ball is holed … don’t worry, you’re not missing anything as it clearly does not. But, through exclusion of the first three answers, Option D is the only possible answer based on the what is both fair and consistent with how similar situations are treated under the Rules. 

You may also be interested to know that there were a number of early drafts that included this outcome. But it was ultimately decided it would be best to remove this, and other similarly rare occurrences, to better the overall scope of the 2019 Rules.  

问题:你进行击球后,你在运动中的球被停止或变向。据估计,如果没有被变向,你的球会停在洞里。下列哪一个情景下,你(的球)被认定是进洞了? 

(a)你从推杆果岭打出的球正在运动中,在距离洞口只有几英寸时,你的对手并不知道你已经打了球,(对手)走过你的球线,不小心将你的球变向了。  

(b) 你和你的伙伴上果岭的一杆都打得不错,两人都有机会抓鸟。你的球离洞口有30英尺,而你伙伴的在3英尺内。你进行了击球,当球在运动中离洞口只有几英寸的时候,你的伙伴有信心自己也能打出小鸟球,于是在你的球就要进洞之前开玩笑地把球截停了。 

(c) 在比杆赛中,你从果岭上击球的同时,同组的另一位球手从果岭环切杆。你的球正向洞口滚动,差不多要进洞时,位球手的球撞到了你的球。最后那位球手的球进洞了,而你的球则偏离了洞口,停在几英尺外。  

(d) 在比杆赛中,你在果岭边的长草中进行了击球,你的球上了果岭并直接向着洞口前进的时候被另一位球员故意变向。 

正确答案:D 

对于17号洞,如果你是“立马知道”的状态,那么你一读完题就已经知道了唯一可能的正确答案,剩下的事情只是在四个选项中将它找出来。 

9号洞也是类似的情况,在那个洞你的球被故意变向,然后你根据估计球会停下的位置打出下一杆(不过在9号洞你采取的是红色罚杆区补救,之后是否可以在转场时换一个球童)。 

 对于9号洞和这里的17号洞,你都需要查看规则11.2c来找到正确的答案。 

在规则中,我们唯一使用这种不寻常程序(即估计如果球没有被变向或停止,球会停在什么地方)的时候,是你在果岭以外的任何地方进行了击球然后发生了故意变向。  

在选项A中,变向是意外的,所以你可以立即排除它是正确答案。这属于规则11.1b例外2的范围,它告诉你从同一地点再打一次,而且没有处罚。 

此外,在选项B和C中,由于你的击球是从果岭上打出的,而且有变向是故意的,规则11.2c要求你采取补救措施–你的击球不算,你需要从刚才打球的地方重新打。  

那就只剩下选项D了,从实际情况来看,你从果岭外击球,你的球在运动中被故意变向,估计球会停在洞里。 

虽然有些人会看规则11.2c,问哪里说了球进洞了 ……别担心,你没有漏掉任何东西,因为它确实没有(说)。但是,通过排除前三个答案,以及基于什么是“既公平且一致地按照规则处理类似的情况”,选项D是唯一可能的答案。  

你可能还有兴趣知道,一些早期草案中曾包含了这一结果。但最终决定最好删除这一结果以及其他类似的罕见情况,使2019年《规则》有更好的整体性。 

Hole 18 

Question: In which one of the following do you not get a penalty under Rule 11? 

(a) After playing from a greenside bunker, you are raking the sand and see another player in your group chip from the other side of the putting green. Although that ball is coming toward you and the bunker, you don’t think it is traveling fast enough to get to the bunker, so you finish raking. To your surprise, the ball does end up in the bunker and comes to rest in the area that you had just raked. 

 
(b) You have a divot in your hand that you are going to replace when you see another player’s ball coming toward the divot hole, so you quickly replace the divot to make sure the player won’t get a bad lie. 

 
(c) Your chip shot up a steep slope stops just short of the top of the slope and starts rolling back toward you, and you remove the loose divot that you just made to prevent the ball from coming to rest against it. 

 
CORRECT ANSWER: A 

Hole 18 reminds you that there is more to Rule 11.3 than moving a loose impediment or movable obstruction to affect where your ball might come to rest – a lot more!  It also applies to deliberately altering physical conditions by taking any of the actions listed in Rule 8.1a (such as what is described in Option B where you replace a divot in a divot hole). 

While the questions so far have focused almost exclusively on you taking actions as it relates to your own ball in motion, Rule 11.3 can also apply to deliberate actions you take to any other player’s ball in motion. 

In reading through the options, Option A should stand out from the others because your actions were not to deliberately affect where the other player’s ball in motion might come to rest. Not only did you expect the ball to stop short, the inadvertent nature of your actions was further reinforced in that you were surprised the ball came to rest in the area you had just raked.  Therefore, there’s no penalty in that situation, while you earned yourself a general penalty in both Options B and C.  

问题:: 根据规则11,下列哪一项不会令你受到处罚? 

(a) 从果岭边的沙坑打完球后,您正一边扒沙,一边看到同组的另一位球手从果岭的另一边切杆。虽然那个球正向你和沙坑飞来,但你认为它的速度不足以到达沙坑,所以你完成了扒沙。令你惊讶的是,球最终还是落在了沙坑里,并且停在了你刚刚扒过的地方。 

(b)你手里拿着一块草皮准备放回到打痕里,就在这时你看到另一个球员的球正在滚向那个打痕,所以你迅速将草皮放回到打痕里,以确保球员不会得到一个不好的球位。 

(c)你的上坡切杆切短了,球差一点点没有到达坡顶,然后顺着陡坡开始向你这里回滚,你把刚才打散的草皮移开以防球滚回到草皮旁边。  

正确答案: A 

18号洞提醒您,规则11.3的内容不仅仅是移动一个散置障碍物或可移动妨碍物来影响你的球的停点–还有更多的内容!它也适用于规则8.1a所列的任何一项改变物理条件的故意行为(例如选项B中描述的,你将草皮放回到打痕中)。 

虽然到目前为止的问题几乎只集中在你对你自己的运动中球所采取的行动,规则11.3也可以适用于你对任何其他球员的运动中球所采取的故意行动。 

在阅读选项时,选项A应该是与其它不同的,因为你的行为不是故意去影响对方球员运动中球可能停住的地方。你不仅预期球不会滚那么远,而且你行为的无意性在你惊讶于球竟然停在了你刚刚耙过的地方时得到了进一步的印证。 因此,在这种情况下没有处罚,而在选项B和C中,你自己导致了一个一般性处罚。 

Short Course R2 F9

目录

特别感谢David对第二轮规则11翻译工作的义务支持!

  • The Practice Area: Introduction to Ball in Motion 

As you and all golfers know, despite our well-intended preparation, anything can and will happen once that little white ball is in motion. This concept, “Ball in Motion,” and all that can happen during its journey, is the focus of this round of the USGA’s Short Course on the Rules of Golf. 

There are a couple important points that underpin Rule 11 (Ball in Motion Accidentally Hits Person, Animal or Object, Deliberate Actions to Affect Ball in Motion). Understanding and recognizing these points will strengthen your ability to properly apply this Rule. 

We’ll start by noting a pattern you can find throughout the Rules – accidental acts are treated very differently than those that are deliberate. Let’s then start by looking at the differences in Rule 11 between accidental and deliberate deflections. 

Generally, when an accidental deflection happens, there’s no penalty and you play your ball as it lies. This was previously defined as a “rub of the green,” which has for decades been synonymous with bad luck by golfers. In reality, the definition didn’t speak to luck at all, rather it meant there had been an accidental deflection by something that was outside of your control. We’ve all experienced our fair share of accidental deflections, including the “lucky” good bounces as well as the “unlucky” bad ones. In golf, you are left to accept and overcome whichever version comes your way. As for “rub of the green,” the Rules no longer have this definition, and what some call a term of art, in part because it was rarely used correctly anyway. 

Deliberate actions in Rule 11 are very different. Let’s start with the generalization that someone will almost always get a penalty, further when a deliberate action does breach Rule 11, the ball cannot be played as it lies – something of a rare occurrence in the game of golf. 

In this round of the Short Course, many questions test your ability to differentiate between these two different outcomes and procedures. 

The second point ties into the deliberate actions noted above and also serves as a foundational principle of how the game is played. That is, once you set your ball into motion with a stroke, you can expect for your ball to take its natural path, without you or anyone else taking deliberate actions to alter that path. 

Another way to think about this principle is to compare golf to the sport of curling … golf is not like curling (except, perhaps for the many colorful outfits). In curling, players will enthusiastically work to deliberately affect where the stone will come to rest. In golf, most deliberate actions taken to affect where your ball in motion might go or come to rest result in a breach of the Rules. So the Rules serve to protect this principle by prohibiting most objects from being deliberately moved out of the way of your ball in motion and also serve to prohibit you or anyone else from taking an action to deliberately deflect or stop a moving ball. 

思考练习区: 介绍运动中的球 

你和所有的球手都知道,尽管我们做了精心的准备,但一旦小白球运动起来,任何事情都有可能发生。“运动中的球”,以及在其运动过程中可能发生的一切,是本轮USGA高尔夫规则Short Course的重点。 

规则11 (运动中的球意外地击中了人、动物或物体,故意行动来影响运动中的球)有几个重要的知识基点。理解和认识这些重点将增强你正确应用这条规则的能力。 

我们首先注意到在整个规则中可以发现一个模式–意外行为与故意行为的处理方式非常不同。然后,让我们先看看规则11中意外变向和故意变向的区别。 

一般来说,当一个球意外的变向发生时,你不会受到处罚,你在球静止的位置击球即可。以前这被定义为“rub of  the green”,几十年来,这一直是高尔夫球手倒霉的代名词。实际上,这个定义根本就和运气没有关系,它的意思是由于你无法控制的某个事物造成了意外的变向,正如我们都机会均等地经历过“幸运”和“不幸”的两种着地。在高尔夫中,无论你面临的是什么形式的意外变向,你唯有接受和克服。至于rub of  the green,规则中不再有这个定义。也有人称之为艺术术语,部分原因是无论如何它都很少被正确使用过。 

规则11中的故意行为是非常不同的。先说说一般情况:那就是几乎总有人被罚;再进一步说,当故意行为确实违反规则11时,球不能在其静止的位置继续打–这在高尔夫比赛中是很少见的。 

在这一个轮短课程中,许多问题测试你区分这两种不同结果以及处理过程的能力。 

第二点与上面提到的故意行动有关的,同时也是这项比赛如何进行的一个基本原则,也就是说,一旦你以击球的方式让你的球动起来,你就可以期望你的球在一条没有你或他人采取故意行动去改变的、属于它自己的自然路径上运动。 

另一种思考这个原则的方法是把高尔夫和冰壶(curling) 运动相比较……高尔夫不像冰壶运动(也许色彩缤纷的着装是列外)。在冰壶比赛中,运动员全情投入地故意影响冰壶的停点。在高尔夫球运动中,大多数故意影响运动中球的去向或静止位置的行为会导致违反规则。。因此,规则的作用是保护这一原则,规定禁止大多数物体从球的运动路径中被故意移开,同时禁止你或任何人采取故意使运动中的球向或停止的行为。

Rub of the green 

    Rub of the green  Ball in motion deliberately deflected by person2016中文规则的翻译相应是球被意外变向” 球被人故意变向,英文的区别这么大但中文的区别这么小,为什么?因为 rub of the green 基本上无法直译,它字面上根本就没有球、变向这些元素长久以来它是规则中的一个定义,定义一种完全与字面意思无关的状况。它的字面意思大概是擦过果岭与果岭擦肩而过之类,所以中文就摒弃了一切翻译的努力,直接说出确切意思算了 

    即使在英文里面,这个词组也很无厘头,有人说这简直就是shrug两手一摊耸耸肩的代名词。2019新规舍弃了这个沿用了很久的无厘头又或者文雅地说艺术术语,取而代之的是清晰而且易于理解,更利于准确翻译的常规用语,这是一个很大和很切实的改变当你了解了上述这些后,或许可以更好地理解:“规则中不再有这个定义,也有人称之为艺术术语,部分原因是无论如何它都很少被正确使用过。”这一句。

Hole 1 

Question: True or False: You may move another player’s golf bag so that a ball in motion will not hit it. 

(a) True 
(b) False 

CORRECT ANSWER: A 

With those two main points fresh in your mind, let’s make our way to the first tee. How many times have you seen this exact situation happen during a round? The natural reaction for most golfers is to move that bag (player equipment) out of the way as a ball races towards it, which is what the Rules allow. That is, the equipment of any player may be moved while your ball is in motion, even if done deliberately to affect where your ball might go. 

Hopefully, this puts up a red flag because this directly contradicts the principle you just read above – let the ball take its natural path. This “exception” to that principle is present for two basic reasons. The first is that it’s the natural reaction for most and prohibiting this would create a number of undesirable penalties. The second is that navigating player equipment as you play is not part of the challenge of playing the game – players bring all kinds of things out on the course and it all gets moved around constantly. Therefore, via an Exception to Rule 11.3, all player equipment can be moved while a ball is in motion, and for any reason. 
 

正确与错误:你可以移动其他球员的高尔夫球包,使运动中的球不会击中它。 
(a) 正确 
(b) 错误 

正确答案: A

在练习区提到的这两个要点记忆犹新的情况下,让我们去第一洞发球台吧。在一轮比赛中,你有多少次看到这种情况确实发生了?大多数球手的自然反应是:当球滚过来的时候,把球包(球员装备)移开–这正是规则所允许的。也就是说,任何球员的装备都可以在你的球运动时被移动,即使是故意影响你的球可能的去向。 

希望这里能引起大家的注意,因为这直接违背了你刚刚在上面读到的原则让球走它的自然路线。这个原则的 “例外 “之所以存在,有两个基本原因:  第一这是大多数人的自然反应,禁止这样做会造成一些不如人意的处罚。第二,在比赛中移动装备并不是这个比赛挑战元素——球员会带各种东西到球场上它们会被不停地移动。因此,通过规则11.3的例外,所有球员装备都可以在球运动时以任何理由被移动。 

Hole 2 

Question: You slice your tee shot into the trees and in trying to play back out to the fairway, your second shot hits a tree, bounces back and hits your body after being unable to move out of the way. The ball comes to rest in the rough. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and you must play the ball as it lies. 
(b) There is no penalty, but your stroke does not count and must be replayed. 
(c) You get one penalty stroke and must play the ball as it lies. 

CORRECT ANSWER: A 

Hole 2 focuses on accidental deflections, and in this question, there are two. As was pointed out above, almost all accidental deflections result in no penalty and the ball is played as it lies. Not many would think twice about a ball hitting a tree (defined as an outside influence), but that’s Rule 11.1 at work. There’s no penalty and you play the ball as it lies. Now, if you missed this question, was it because you thought there is a penalty for the ball also accidentally deflecting off of you? This is an outcome that has changed over time. Currently, just like with the tree, because the deflection is accidental, there’s no penalty and you would still play the ball where it came to rest. 

That said, when your stroke results in your ball accidentally hitting you, the outcome is typically punishment enough and the Rules no longer see a need to contribute. 

你从发球台开出一个右曲球进了树林中,当你试图将球击回球道时,你的第二杆击中了一棵树,球弹了回来,因你无法躲避而打到了你自己。球停在长草内。判定是什么? 
a) 没有处罚,在球现有的位置继续打。 
(b) 没有处罚,你此次的击球无效,必须重打。 
(c) 罚一杆,在球的现有位置继续击球。 

正确答案:A

2洞专注于意外变向,在这个问题中,有两个关注点。正如上面所指出的,几乎所有的意外变向都不会导致处罚,而且球在现有位置继续打。少人球打中树(定义为外部因素)这种事思前想后不过这就是规则11.1运作的意义。没有处罚,你就在球现有位置继续打。 

现在,假如你答错了这题,是否因为你以为球被你自己意外变向了会罚一杆?这个结局已经随着时间的推移而转变了(指2019规则的改变- 译者注)。现在,就像(上述的)树一样,因为变向是意外的,没有处罚,你是在球停下来的地方(继续)击球。 

也就是说,当你的击球导致你的球意外打到了你,这样的结果已是足够的惩罚,规则无须再作贡献了。

Hole 3 

Question: True or False: If you place your foot in a position to stop another player’s ball from rolling off the front of the putting green, you are penalized whether or not the ball hits your foot. 
(a) True 
(b) False 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

Here we get our first look at deliberate deflections. Rule 11.2 covers deliberate deflections and it is helpful to remember in this Rule that simply taking a deliberate action does not always result in a penalty. It’s only when you are successful in deflecting or stopping your ball or any other ball in motion that you breach the Rule. Because of that, many will refer to Rule 11.2 as an outcome-based Rule in that to make a correct ruling, you need to know both what the player was trying to do, and whether it was successful. 

It follows then that if you attempt to deliberately deflect your ball in motion, but are unsuccessful, you do not get a penalty. While many Rules can be breached simply by taking a deliberate action (we’ll see this in Rule 11.3), this Rule doesn’t use that same standard because it is easy to differentiate between actions that affect where your ball in motion comes to rest and those that don’t. 

Another way that might help you commit this nuance to memory is to compare how similar it is to try to stop your ball in motion from rolling into a penalty area and having it bounce right over your foot, untouched and into the water versus how effective you are by pleading for a thinned wedge to “SIT DOWN” as it skitters over the green. 

问题:如果你故意用你的脚去阻止另一个球员的球从果岭前端滚下来,不管球是否击中你的脚,你都会受到惩罚。 

(a) 正确 
(b) 错误 

正确答案:B 

在这里我们第一次看到故意变向。规则11.2涵盖了故意变向,在这条规则中,记住这点会很有帮助:仅仅采取故意的行动并不总是会导致处罚。只有当你成功地将你的球或任何其他正在运动的球变向或截停时,你才会违反规则。正因为如此,许多人将规则11.2称为“结果为本”的规则,因为要做出正确的判定,你需要同时知道球员试图做什么以及行动是否成功。 

由此可见,如果你试图故意使球偏离运动方向,但没有成功,你不会得到处罚。虽然,只要故意采取行动就可以违反许多规则(我们将在规则11.3中看到),但(11.2这条规则并没有使用相同的标准,因为很容易区分哪些行动影响你的运动中球的最终停点,哪些没有 

另一种可能有助于你记住这个细微差别的方法是,将上述情况和以下两种情况相比,(在影响方面)是多么相似。 

– 你伸出一只脚试图阻止你的运动中球滚进一个罚杆区,但球弹起并跳过了你的脚,碰都没碰你的脚就滚进了水里。 

– 你的切杆打薄了,眼看你的球就要滚出果岭,你哀求着喊“停下”可以对球的运动产生怎样的影响? 

Hole 4 

Question: You play your ball from the putting green, and the ball in motion accidentally hits a towel dropped on the putting green by the caddie of another player. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty to anyone, and the ball is played as it lies. 
(b) There is no penalty to anyone. Your stroke does not count, and the original ball or another ball must be replaced on its original spot. 
(c) There is no penalty to anyone. You have the option to play the ball as it lies or replay the stroke. 
(d) The player whose caddie dropped the towel gets the general penalty since the ball hit the towel. Your stroke does not count, and the original ball or another ball must be replaced on its original spot. 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

We’re back to Rule 11.1 and accidental acts, but here we’ll take a look at one of the Exceptions to Rule 11.1b. First, remember Rule 11.1 applies to accidental deflections only. Rule 11.1a tells you if there is a penalty and Rule 11.1b is specific to where the ball must be played from following an accidental deflection. 

As with nearly all accidental deflections, Rule 11.1a tells you there’s no penalty to anyone. Now onto Rule 11.1b to figure out where to play the next stroke from. In almost all cases, your ball will be played as it lies, but that’s not the case here. 

The towel you hit is player equipment, but it is also a movable obstruction. Yes, that’s right, there are many times when multiple Definitions will apply to any given situation, as is the case here. When you recognize this, while it might appear to present a challenge, it will be helpful to remember that this is not a rare occurrence. Further, there’s a very high correlation to one’s understanding of the Definitions and one’s understanding of the Rules. 

Because Exception 2 to Rule 11.1b addresses movable obstructions, which the towel is, the stroke does not count and either the original ball or another ball must be replaced on the original spot and played again from there, without penalty. 

While this also contradicts what is generally true for accidental deflections (normally there is no penalty and you play the ball as it lies), this also highlights another pattern in the Rules – when things happen on the putting green, they are often treated differently because the putting green is considered to be a special place. 

你从果岭上击球,运动中的球意外碰到了另一位球员的球童掉在果岭上的毛巾。判定是什么? 

(a)没有人被处罚,球在现有的位置上继续打。 

(b)没有人被处罚。该次击球无效,初始球或另一个球必须放回初始的位置。 

(c)没有人被处罚。你可以选择在球的现有位置继续打,或者重新进行该次击球。 

(d) 球童掉落毛巾的球员得到一般性处罚,因为球碰到了毛巾。该次击球无效,初始球或另一个球必须放回初始的位置。 

 

正确答案:B 

我们回到规则11.1和意外行为,但这里我们要看一下规则11.1b的一个例外情况。首先,记住规则11.1只适用于意外变向。规则11.1a告诉你是否有处罚,而规则11.1b则具体规定了意外变向后球必须从哪里打。  

和几乎所有的意外变向一样,规则11.1a告诉你对任何人都不会有惩罚。现在接着看规则11.1b,找出下一次击球的位置。在几乎所有的情况下,你会在球现有的位置继续打,但这里的情况并非如此。  

你碰到的毛巾是球员装备,但它同时是一个可移动妨碍物。是的,正是这样,有很多时候,在一个特定的情况下会有多个定义适用,这里就是如此。当你意识到这一点时貌似质疑也随之出现,但记住以下这句将对你有莫大的帮助:这不是什么稀罕事。再进一步来说,一个人对 “定义 “的理解会影响到对 “规则 “的理解,两者之间存在着很高的关联性。  

因为规则11.1b例外2针对的就是象毛巾这样的可移动妨碍物,所以该次击球不算,必须将初始球或另一球放回到初始的位置,从那里重新打,不受处罚。 

虽然这与意外变向的一般情况相矛盾(通常情况下没有罚杆,你在球现有的位置击球),但这也突现了规则中的另一个模式——当事情发生在果岭上时通常会被区别对待,因为推杆果岭被认为是一个特殊的地方。 

Hole 5 

Question: True or False: If your ball played from the putting green is deflected by a leaf being blown by the wind, the stroke does not count. 

(a) True 
(b) False 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

An age-old favorite here! Every autumn as the leaves begin to fall, the Rules team will field inquiries from dozens of golfers about perfect putts destined for the hole, only to have a leaf mercilessly knock their ball off its perfect line. 

 

A careful reading of the Rules will pick up both what is written and also what is not. While you might look to Exception 2 under Rule 11.1b for some relief, just like we saw on Hole 4, that’s not the case here. 

A detached leaf is a loose impediment (as well as an outside influence) and neither of those objects are included in Exception 2. This means you just use Rule 11.1 – there’s no penalty and you’ll play your next stroke from where your ball came to rest.  

正确或错误:如果你在果岭上打出的球被风吹起的树叶变向,该次击球无效。 
 (a) 正确  
 (b) 错误 

正确答案:B 

这是一个自古以来大家就津津乐道的话题!每年秋天当树叶纷纷离开枝头的时候,总有一堆现场球员会对规则团队说起:那一推眼看着必定要进洞的,结果却被一片无情的叶子撞歪了那条完美的推击线。 

仔细阅读规则,就会发现写了什么,没写什么。尽管你可能像我们在4号洞那样,试图从规则11.1b的例外2中寻找一些宽免,但这里的情况并非如此。 

一片脱落的叶子是一个散置障碍物(也是一个外部因素),而这两样物体都不包括在例外2的情况中。这意味着你只需用到规则11.1–没有任何处罚,你将从你的球静止的地方打下一杆。 

Hole 6 

Question: While a ball played from the putting green is in motion, which one of the following may not be moved to prevent the ball from hitting it? 

(a) A ball at rest on the putting green 
(b) A flagstick that has been removed and lies on the putting green 
(c) A twig  

CORRECT ANSWER: C 

On Hole 6 we revisit the concept from Hole 1. There, you learned that while most objects need to be left in place while a ball is in motion, player equipment can be moved even when done to influence the movement of a ball. 

The Exception to Rule 11.3 also includes a removed flagstick and a ball at rest on the putting green, but that’s it. Therefore, any other object that you lift or move while a ball is in motion to deliberately affect where that ball will go or come to rest will result in you getting the general penalty. 

当从推杆果岭上打出的球在运动时,以下哪项不得移动来防止被球打到? 

(a) 果岭上静止的球 

(b) 一根已经被移走并放在果岭上的旗杆  

(c)一根小树枝 

正确答案: C 

在6号洞,我们重温了1号洞的概念。你在那里了解到:当球运动时,大多数物体需要留在原地,但球员的装备可以被移动,即使这样做影响了球的运动。 

规则11.3的例外情况还包括一根已经被移走的旗杆和一个静止在果岭上的球,但仅此而已。因此,当球在运动中时,你拿起或移动任何其他物体来故意影响球的去向或停点,都会导致你受到一般性处罚。 

Hole 7 

Question: When it is known or virtually certain that your ball in motion was deliberately stopped or deflected by a person, which one of the following is true? 

(a) If your stroke was made from off the putting green, you may play the ball from the spot where it comes to rest.

(b) If your stroke was made from on the putting green, your stroke does not count and you must replace the original ball or another ball on its original spot. 

(c) Regardless of where your stroke was made, you must estimate the spot where the ball would have come to rest and play a ball from that location. 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

Hole 7 focuses on what happens following a deliberate deflection or stopping of a ball in motion. As referenced in the practice area, this is one of the rare times in the Rules that the ball cannot be played as it lies. In fact, a ball can never be played as it lies following a deliberate deflection or stopping of a ball in motion – and it’s unusual to be absolute when it comes to the Rules. With that in mind, it becomes a debate between options B and C. As the putting green is a special place, a stroke in this situation doesn’t count and must be replayed.  

问题:当你知道或几乎肯定你的运动中球被人故意变向或被故意截停了,下列哪项是正确的? 

(a) 如果你的击球是从果岭之外打出的,你可以从球停下来的地方继续打。 

(b) 如果你的击球是在果岭上打出的,你的击球无效。你必须将初始球或另一球放回到初始的位置上。 

(c) 不管你在哪里击出的球,你都必须估计出球会在哪里停下来,并从那里继续打球。 

正确答案:B 

第7洞的重点是运动中的球被故意变向或被截停之后会发生什么。正如在练习区所提到的,这是规则中少有的不能在球的现有位置继续打的情况之一。事实上,运动中的球在被故意变向或截停之后,球是绝对不能在现有的位置打的–在规则中,这个绝对是不常见的。基于这一点,(这道题)就变成了是选答案B还是答案C之争了。由于推杆果岭作为一个特殊的地方,这种情况下的击球无效,必须重打。  

Hole 8 

Question: While your ball is in motion after a stroke, another player, who is not aware that your ball was in motion, lifts a rake to rake the bunker from where the other player had just played. Your ball rolls through the area from where the rake was lifted. What is the ruling? 
 
(a) Neither player gets a penalty. 
(b) You get the general penalty. 
(c)The player who lifted the rake gets the general penalty. 

CORRECT ANSWER: A 

On the surface, this question might appear to breach the principle of allowing a ball in motion to take its natural path. However, this principle only addresses deliberate actions that are taken to affect where a ball in motion might come to rest. Since this other player did not deliberately move the rake to affect where your ball would go (he was unaware you made a stroke), Rule 11.3 doesn’t apply. No penalty and play on.  

问题:另一位球员没有留意到你击球后球在运动中,(他)拿起沙耙去沙坑里将其他球员刚刚打球的地方扒平。然后你的球滚过了刚才放沙耙的区域,判定是什么? 

(a) 两位球员都没有处罚 

(b) 你得到一般性处罚。 

(c) 拿起沙耙的那位球员得到一般性处罚。  

正确答案:A 

从表面上看,这个问题似乎违反了让运动中的球走其自然路径的原则。然而,这个原则只针对那些为了影响运动中球可能静止的地方而采取的故意行为。由于这位球员并没有故意移动沙耙来影响你的球的去向(他不知道你击了球),所以规则11.3不适用。没有处罚,继续比赛。 

Hole 9 

Question: In stroke play, you hit your third shot into a par-5 green but it goes too far and over the green toward a red penalty area. Your caddie, who had walked ahead and was near the penalty area, intentionally stopped the ball before it could go into the penalty area. Seeing this happen, you estimate the spot where the ball would have come to rest in the penalty area. Based on that spot, you decide to take penalty area relief. After correctly dropping a ball, you hole out in two more strokes. What is your score for the hole?  
(a) 6 
(b) 7 
(c) 8 

       在比杆赛中,你的第三杆打上了一个五杆洞的果岭,但球滚得太远,越过果岭向一个红色罚杆区滚去。你的球童走在前面刚好在罚杆区附近,(他)故意在球进入罚杆区之前将球截停了。看到所发生的事,你估计了一下球可能会在罚杆区内的停点,根据这个点,你决定采取罚杆区补救。正确地抛球后,你再用两杆完成该洞。你这洞的杆数是多少?  
(a) 6 
(b) 7 
(c) 8 

CORRECT ANSWER: C 

It’s your responsibility as the player in stroke play to get your individual hole scores right on your scorecard and here it would be a good idea to figure out your score before heading over to the back nine. Since there never seems to be a referee around to ask for help when you play the Short Course, it’s all up to you! 

When your caddie intentionally stopped your ball from going into the penalty area, he breached Rule 11.2 and earned you a general penalty (two strokes in stroke play). Remembering that deliberate actions that breach the Rules never result in you playing the ball as it lies, you proceeded correctly by estimating where the ball would have come to rest. Because that was in the penalty area, penalty area relief under Rule 17.1d was available to you for one penalty stroke. That brings your total to three penalty strokes added onto your five talent strokes, for a grand total of eight. 

Let your marker know a snowman is in order and, if you’re ready for the challenge of the back nine, let’s make the turn.   

作为比杆赛的球员,你有责任把你各洞的成绩正确地记在你的记分卡上,在去往后九洞之前,最好在这里先算清楚你的成绩。看来是不会有裁判出现在这个Short Course上并给予帮助了,你只有靠自己了!  

当你的球童为了阻止你的球进入罚杆区而故意截停你的球时,他违反了规则11.2,并为你挣了个一般性处罚(比杆赛中罚两杆)。记住,故意违反规则的行为永远不会允许你在球停下的位置继续打球。接下来你估计出球会停在哪里,这样处理是正确的。 因为停点在罚杆区内,你可以根据规则17.1d罚一杆进行罚杆区补救。至此你得到3杆罚杆,加上你的5杆实际击球,总共8杆。 

让你的记分员给你写上一个象雪人一样的8字。 好了,如果你已经准备好迎接后九洞的挑战,我们就转场吧。  

琼-拉姆的罚杆

一,USGA声明   

       USGA 2020年 7月20 日就纪念赛(Memorial Tournament)上琼- 拉姆(Joh Rahm)在16洞因自己未察觉的球移动而罚两杆的事件发放了一则声明, 中心思想是:


  • 根据2017年颁布的视频使用指引,电视影像是确认事实时可信和可用的来源。

  • 基于“移动”的定义和规则2c“肉眼”的标准,该判罚并没有使用高于上述术语的标准。

  • 视频是在实际速度下播放(不是慢镜),符合球员肉眼可见的标准。虽然球员没有专注在球上,但基于他的站位球员可以看见球移位的事实。


  • 点击此处查看USGA声明原文。

        7月22日的USGA裁判网会上专门就拉姆的情况请与会的裁判就罚与不罚投票,然后Craig Winter详细讲解了USGA的观点,之后再请大家投票。总的来说主张罚的投票占了多数。网会全程已发布在USGA网站上,对此事件的解释大约在33分到45分之间,讲了超过10分钟,有兴趣的裁判可以听听。有趣的是,解释了10分钟后,支持不罚杆的裁判增加了。

二,如何理解规则9.2

对于静止的球移动了,在规则上要解决两个问题:

1,球有没有发生符合定义的“移动”?
2,如果有,是什么导致球移动的?

世界上或有千百种原因可以令球移动,但是规则里面只承认四种可能性【9.2b(1)】,且任何移动的原因只可能是以下的其中一种:

1,自然力
2,球员(包括球员的球僮)
3,对手(包括对手的球僮)
4,外部因素

决定球移动的原因最好的方法是排除法,排除三项,剩下的唯一一项就是导致球移动的原因。多数时候排除的顺序可以是:球员?(比洞赛)对手?外部因素?如果这三项都否定,那么规则就默认是自然力了,一定是风、水、地心引力…… [9.2b(2)]

三,知道或几乎肯定

        拉姆事件中,如何理解9.2a 及 b所提及的“知道或几乎肯定-known or virtually certain”(以下简称KVC)?


        首先,KVC是一个定义(请翻书,定义和释义加在一起你有一页半的书要先读),在此条规则中只针对球员、对手和外部因素这三种原因,即如果是球员、对手、外部因素移动了球需要KVC。自然力移动了球不需要KVC,因为要证明和确定地心吸力如何导致了球的移动并不是一件简单的事。
        其次,KVC不等于球员本人实时KVC。比如球员本身不知晓(known)或不能确认(certain),但是有目击者知道和肯定,这个事实就是KVC。当然,最后球员必须知道球移动了(比如知情人告诉他了,又或者象拉姆这样电视录像重放给他看),才能进一步谈后继处理和处罚(假如有的话),因为球员KVC之后才能将罚杆施加给自己。
        在拉姆这个案例中,球员通过录像再综合其他合理的信息作出了确认。当中的电视录像就是“可以合理获得的信息”(请翻书,这是KVC定义中的一个内部定义),且不费力,没有延误比赛。9.2b(2)最后一句就是将这个内部定义重复了一遍。

        所以我们回到上述两个问题:

1,球有没有发生符合定义的“移动”?—— 有。
2,是什么导致球移动的?—— 球员将球杆向下压导致球移动了。
再加一个:可以KVC吗?—— 可以,有录像。

        问题是这个录像是否应该在判定中采用?问得好!所以现在要去看USGA的声明。

        判定球移动的原因是规则9中最重要的一项工作,因为确认了原因才能指向相应的子规则,进一步确定球员后继怎么做,要不要处罚。因此理解好9.2是关键。

四,球员不知情要不要罚?

        球被移动了,但是球员在击球前不知道,要不要罚?
那么我们要看导致球移动的原因,概括来说:

  • 如果不是球员导致球移动的,不罚杆;
  • 如果是球员导致球移动的,虽然球员没有留意或不知道,罚杆是不可避免的。

        释义9.2a/1 和 9.2a/2 解释了这类情况,尤其是释义/2,标题就说得很明白了:球员要对导致球移动的行为负责,即使在不觉察到球已经移动的情况下。

五,拉姆赛后回应

        赛后,高球周刊引述了拉姆对此作出的回应:


“The ball did move. It’s as simple as that,” Rahm said. “The rules of golf are clear. Had I seen it, I would have said something. But you have to zoom in the camera to be able to see something, and I have rough, I’m looking at my landing spot. I’m not really thinking of looking at the golf ball……

“As unfortunate as it is to have this happen, it was a great shot. What it goes to show is you never know what’s going to happen. So I’m glad I grinded those last two up-and-downs……I want everybody to hear it; it did move. It is a penalty. But it did move, so I’ll accept the penalty, and it still doesn’t change the outcome of the tournament. It doesn’t take anything from the day, though. It’s still probably one of the greatest days of my life.”

“球确实动了。就这么简单。”Rahm说。”高尔夫的规则很清楚。如果我看到了,我肯定会说的。可是你必须把摄像机放大才能够看到这些,我在长草区,我在看我的落点。我没有在想要看着那个高尔夫球。

“虽然发生这种事很不幸,但那是一个漂亮的击球。如果这能说明什么的话那就是你永远不知道会发生什么。所以我很高兴我守住了最后那两个一切一推。我想让大家都听到这个:它确实动了。这要罚杆。但(因为)它确实动了,所以我会接受这个处罚,只是它并没有改变比赛的结果。这事并没有让我在今天的比赛中失去什么。它仍然可能是我一生中最伟大的一天。”

从潘政琮的露营车说开去

The Extra Mile with C.T. Pan

Golf Digest 这两天发了三部短视频,记录的是潘政琮开着他2020年买的奔驰露营车,与记者一起从凤凰城到圆石滩800英里路程的经过。当中潘政琮谈起自己是怎样开始打球的,父亲带着他和哥哥睡在一辆面包车里打了7年比赛的往事…… 

图片来自GolfDigest

点击此处可查看视频。

开着露营车打美巡
文字版

其实早在2020年12月左右,潘太太Michelle就用文字记录了两人购买和使用露营车的故事,一连3篇,相当有趣味。

以下链接可以看到这些精彩的文字。

潘政琮基金网站

如果你想了解更多关于潘政琮的信息、高尔夫教学指导或是获得一些青少年如何进大学的信息可以去看他自己的网站

卢宏宗访谈视频

其中提到他的恩师卢宏宗(已故)。我早些年接触到卢先生的理念时觉得非常认同。卢先生是帮助潘政琮作出人生关键选择的人,他说过,他不但要培养一位PGA Player, 更是要培养一个pathfinder(寻路者)。

Youtube上面有卢先生的访谈,链接在这里

辛丑元宵

Wen's Produce

万家灯火闹元宵 一碗 汤圆 瑞气盈

圆润的白汤圆,古朴的蓝瓷碗,最要紧是那几条画龙点睛的名贵香料Saffron (藏红花)。西人一看,顿感这汤圆定是矜贵之物,再告知寓意Reunion(团圆),更觉家国情怀,尽在此中了。

—— 谢谢文大厨的汤圆