Short Course R2 F9

特别感谢David对第二轮规则11翻译工作的义务支持!

  • The Practice Area: Introduction to Ball in Motion 

As you and all golfers know, despite our well-intended preparation, anything can and will happen once that little white ball is in motion. This concept, “Ball in Motion,” and all that can happen during its journey, is the focus of this round of the USGA’s Short Course on the Rules of Golf. 

There are a couple important points that underpin Rule 11 (Ball in Motion Accidentally Hits Person, Animal or Object, Deliberate Actions to Affect Ball in Motion). Understanding and recognizing these points will strengthen your ability to properly apply this Rule. 

We’ll start by noting a pattern you can find throughout the Rules – accidental acts are treated very differently than those that are deliberate. Let’s then start by looking at the differences in Rule 11 between accidental and deliberate deflections. 

Generally, when an accidental deflection happens, there’s no penalty and you play your ball as it lies. This was previously defined as a “rub of the green,” which has for decades been synonymous with bad luck by golfers. In reality, the definition didn’t speak to luck at all, rather it meant there had been an accidental deflection by something that was outside of your control. We’ve all experienced our fair share of accidental deflections, including the “lucky” good bounces as well as the “unlucky” bad ones. In golf, you are left to accept and overcome whichever version comes your way. As for “rub of the green,” the Rules no longer have this definition, and what some call a term of art, in part because it was rarely used correctly anyway. 

Deliberate actions in Rule 11 are very different. Let’s start with the generalization that someone will almost always get a penalty, further when a deliberate action does breach Rule 11, the ball cannot be played as it lies – something of a rare occurrence in the game of golf. 

In this round of the Short Course, many questions test your ability to differentiate between these two different outcomes and procedures. 

The second point ties into the deliberate actions noted above and also serves as a foundational principle of how the game is played. That is, once you set your ball into motion with a stroke, you can expect for your ball to take its natural path, without you or anyone else taking deliberate actions to alter that path. 

Another way to think about this principle is to compare golf to the sport of curling … golf is not like curling (except, perhaps for the many colorful outfits). In curling, players will enthusiastically work to deliberately affect where the stone will come to rest. In golf, most deliberate actions taken to affect where your ball in motion might go or come to rest result in a breach of the Rules. So the Rules serve to protect this principle by prohibiting most objects from being deliberately moved out of the way of your ball in motion and also serve to prohibit you or anyone else from taking an action to deliberately deflect or stop a moving ball. 

思考练习区: 介绍运动中的球 

你和所有的球手都知道,尽管我们做了精心的准备,但一旦小白球运动起来,任何事情都有可能发生。“运动中的球”,以及在其运动过程中可能发生的一切,是本轮USGA高尔夫规则Short Course的重点。 

规则11 (运动中的球意外地击中了人、动物或物体,故意行动来影响运动中的球)有几个重要的知识基点。理解和认识这些重点将增强你正确应用这条规则的能力。 

我们首先注意到在整个规则中可以发现一个模式–意外行为与故意行为的处理方式非常不同。然后,让我们先看看规则11中意外变向和故意变向的区别。 

一般来说,当一个球意外的变向发生时,你不会受到处罚,你在球静止的位置击球即可。以前这被定义为“rub of  the green”,几十年来,这一直是高尔夫球手倒霉的代名词。实际上,这个定义根本就和运气没有关系,它的意思是由于你无法控制的某个事物造成了意外的变向,正如我们都机会均等地经历过“幸运”和“不幸”的两种着地。在高尔夫中,无论你面临的是什么形式的意外变向,你唯有接受和克服。至于rub of  the green,规则中不再有这个定义。也有人称之为艺术术语,部分原因是无论如何它都很少被正确使用过。 

规则11中的故意行为是非常不同的。先说说一般情况:那就是几乎总有人被罚;再进一步说,当故意行为确实违反规则11时,球不能在其静止的位置继续打–这在高尔夫比赛中是很少见的。 

在这一个轮短课程中,许多问题测试你区分这两种不同结果以及处理过程的能力。 

第二点与上面提到的故意行动有关的,同时也是这项比赛如何进行的一个基本原则,也就是说,一旦你以击球的方式让你的球动起来,你就可以期望你的球在一条没有你或他人采取故意行动去改变的、属于它自己的自然路径上运动。 

另一种思考这个原则的方法是把高尔夫和冰壶(curling) 运动相比较……高尔夫不像冰壶运动(也许色彩缤纷的着装是列外)。在冰壶比赛中,运动员全情投入地故意影响冰壶的停点。在高尔夫球运动中,大多数故意影响运动中球的去向或静止位置的行为会导致违反规则。。因此,规则的作用是保护这一原则,规定禁止大多数物体从球的运动路径中被故意移开,同时禁止你或任何人采取故意使运动中的球向或停止的行为。

Rub of the green 

    Rub of the green  Ball in motion deliberately deflected by person2016中文规则的翻译相应是球被意外变向” 球被人故意变向,英文的区别这么大但中文的区别这么小,为什么?因为 rub of the green 基本上无法直译,它字面上根本就没有球、变向这些元素长久以来它是规则中的一个定义,定义一种完全与字面意思无关的状况。它的字面意思大概是擦过果岭与果岭擦肩而过之类,所以中文就摒弃了一切翻译的努力,直接说出确切意思算了 

    即使在英文里面,这个词组也很无厘头,有人说这简直就是shrug两手一摊耸耸肩的代名词。2019新规舍弃了这个沿用了很久的无厘头又或者文雅地说艺术术语,取而代之的是清晰而且易于理解,更利于准确翻译的常规用语,这是一个很大和很切实的改变当你了解了上述这些后,或许可以更好地理解:“规则中不再有这个定义,也有人称之为艺术术语,部分原因是无论如何它都很少被正确使用过。”这一句。

Hole 1 

Question: True or False: You may move another player’s golf bag so that a ball in motion will not hit it. 

(a) True 
(b) False 

CORRECT ANSWER: A 

With those two main points fresh in your mind, let’s make our way to the first tee. How many times have you seen this exact situation happen during a round? The natural reaction for most golfers is to move that bag (player equipment) out of the way as a ball races towards it, which is what the Rules allow. That is, the equipment of any player may be moved while your ball is in motion, even if done deliberately to affect where your ball might go. 

Hopefully, this puts up a red flag because this directly contradicts the principle you just read above – let the ball take its natural path. This “exception” to that principle is present for two basic reasons. The first is that it’s the natural reaction for most and prohibiting this would create a number of undesirable penalties. The second is that navigating player equipment as you play is not part of the challenge of playing the game – players bring all kinds of things out on the course and it all gets moved around constantly. Therefore, via an Exception to Rule 11.3, all player equipment can be moved while a ball is in motion, and for any reason. 
 

正确与错误:你可以移动其他球员的高尔夫球包,使运动中的球不会击中它。 
(a) 正确 
(b) 错误 

正确答案: A

在练习区提到的这两个要点记忆犹新的情况下,让我们去第一洞发球台吧。在一轮比赛中,你有多少次看到这种情况确实发生了?大多数球手的自然反应是:当球滚过来的时候,把球包(球员装备)移开–这正是规则所允许的。也就是说,任何球员的装备都可以在你的球运动时被移动,即使是故意影响你的球可能的去向。 

希望这里能引起大家的注意,因为这直接违背了你刚刚在上面读到的原则让球走它的自然路线。这个原则的 “例外 “之所以存在,有两个基本原因:  第一这是大多数人的自然反应,禁止这样做会造成一些不如人意的处罚。第二,在比赛中移动装备并不是这个比赛挑战元素——球员会带各种东西到球场上它们会被不停地移动。因此,通过规则11.3的例外,所有球员装备都可以在球运动时以任何理由被移动。 

Hole 2 

Question: You slice your tee shot into the trees and in trying to play back out to the fairway, your second shot hits a tree, bounces back and hits your body after being unable to move out of the way. The ball comes to rest in the rough. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and you must play the ball as it lies. 
(b) There is no penalty, but your stroke does not count and must be replayed. 
(c) You get one penalty stroke and must play the ball as it lies. 

CORRECT ANSWER: A 

Hole 2 focuses on accidental deflections, and in this question, there are two. As was pointed out above, almost all accidental deflections result in no penalty and the ball is played as it lies. Not many would think twice about a ball hitting a tree (defined as an outside influence), but that’s Rule 11.1 at work. There’s no penalty and you play the ball as it lies. Now, if you missed this question, was it because you thought there is a penalty for the ball also accidentally deflecting off of you? This is an outcome that has changed over time. Currently, just like with the tree, because the deflection is accidental, there’s no penalty and you would still play the ball where it came to rest. 

That said, when your stroke results in your ball accidentally hitting you, the outcome is typically punishment enough and the Rules no longer see a need to contribute. 

你从发球台开出一个右曲球进了树林中,当你试图将球击回球道时,你的第二杆击中了一棵树,球弹了回来,因你无法躲避而打到了你自己。球停在长草内。判定是什么? 
a) 没有处罚,在球现有的位置继续打。 
(b) 没有处罚,你此次的击球无效,必须重打。 
(c) 罚一杆,在球的现有位置继续击球。 

正确答案:A

2洞专注于意外变向,在这个问题中,有两个关注点。正如上面所指出的,几乎所有的意外变向都不会导致处罚,而且球在现有位置继续打。少人球打中树(定义为外部因素)这种事思前想后不过这就是规则11.1运作的意义。没有处罚,你就在球现有位置继续打。 

现在,假如你答错了这题,是否因为你以为球被你自己意外变向了会罚一杆?这个结局已经随着时间的推移而转变了(指2019规则的改变- 译者注)。现在,就像(上述的)树一样,因为变向是意外的,没有处罚,你是在球停下来的地方(继续)击球。 

也就是说,当你的击球导致你的球意外打到了你,这样的结果已是足够的惩罚,规则无须再作贡献了。

Hole 3 

Question: True or False: If you place your foot in a position to stop another player’s ball from rolling off the front of the putting green, you are penalized whether or not the ball hits your foot. 
(a) True 
(b) False 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

Here we get our first look at deliberate deflections. Rule 11.2 covers deliberate deflections and it is helpful to remember in this Rule that simply taking a deliberate action does not always result in a penalty. It’s only when you are successful in deflecting or stopping your ball or any other ball in motion that you breach the Rule. Because of that, many will refer to Rule 11.2 as an outcome-based Rule in that to make a correct ruling, you need to know both what the player was trying to do, and whether it was successful. 

It follows then that if you attempt to deliberately deflect your ball in motion, but are unsuccessful, you do not get a penalty. While many Rules can be breached simply by taking a deliberate action (we’ll see this in Rule 11.3), this Rule doesn’t use that same standard because it is easy to differentiate between actions that affect where your ball in motion comes to rest and those that don’t. 

Another way that might help you commit this nuance to memory is to compare how similar it is to try to stop your ball in motion from rolling into a penalty area and having it bounce right over your foot, untouched and into the water versus how effective you are by pleading for a thinned wedge to “SIT DOWN” as it skitters over the green. 

问题:如果你故意用你的脚去阻止另一个球员的球从果岭前端滚下来,不管球是否击中你的脚,你都会受到惩罚。 

(a) 正确 
(b) 错误 

正确答案:B 

在这里我们第一次看到故意变向。规则11.2涵盖了故意变向,在这条规则中,记住这点会很有帮助:仅仅采取故意的行动并不总是会导致处罚。只有当你成功地将你的球或任何其他正在运动的球变向或截停时,你才会违反规则。正因为如此,许多人将规则11.2称为“结果为本”的规则,因为要做出正确的判定,你需要同时知道球员试图做什么以及行动是否成功。 

由此可见,如果你试图故意使球偏离运动方向,但没有成功,你不会得到处罚。虽然,只要故意采取行动就可以违反许多规则(我们将在规则11.3中看到),但(11.2这条规则并没有使用相同的标准,因为很容易区分哪些行动影响你的运动中球的最终停点,哪些没有 

另一种可能有助于你记住这个细微差别的方法是,将上述情况和以下两种情况相比,(在影响方面)是多么相似。 

– 你伸出一只脚试图阻止你的运动中球滚进一个罚杆区,但球弹起并跳过了你的脚,碰都没碰你的脚就滚进了水里。 

– 你的切杆打薄了,眼看你的球就要滚出果岭,你哀求着喊“停下”可以对球的运动产生怎样的影响? 

Hole 4 

Question: You play your ball from the putting green, and the ball in motion accidentally hits a towel dropped on the putting green by the caddie of another player. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty to anyone, and the ball is played as it lies. 
(b) There is no penalty to anyone. Your stroke does not count, and the original ball or another ball must be replaced on its original spot. 
(c) There is no penalty to anyone. You have the option to play the ball as it lies or replay the stroke. 
(d) The player whose caddie dropped the towel gets the general penalty since the ball hit the towel. Your stroke does not count, and the original ball or another ball must be replaced on its original spot. 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

We’re back to Rule 11.1 and accidental acts, but here we’ll take a look at one of the Exceptions to Rule 11.1b. First, remember Rule 11.1 applies to accidental deflections only. Rule 11.1a tells you if there is a penalty and Rule 11.1b is specific to where the ball must be played from following an accidental deflection. 

As with nearly all accidental deflections, Rule 11.1a tells you there’s no penalty to anyone. Now onto Rule 11.1b to figure out where to play the next stroke from. In almost all cases, your ball will be played as it lies, but that’s not the case here. 

The towel you hit is player equipment, but it is also a movable obstruction. Yes, that’s right, there are many times when multiple Definitions will apply to any given situation, as is the case here. When you recognize this, while it might appear to present a challenge, it will be helpful to remember that this is not a rare occurrence. Further, there’s a very high correlation to one’s understanding of the Definitions and one’s understanding of the Rules. 

Because Exception 2 to Rule 11.1b addresses movable obstructions, which the towel is, the stroke does not count and either the original ball or another ball must be replaced on the original spot and played again from there, without penalty. 

While this also contradicts what is generally true for accidental deflections (normally there is no penalty and you play the ball as it lies), this also highlights another pattern in the Rules – when things happen on the putting green, they are often treated differently because the putting green is considered to be a special place. 

你从果岭上击球,运动中的球意外碰到了另一位球员的球童掉在果岭上的毛巾。判定是什么? 

(a)没有人被处罚,球在现有的位置上继续打。 

(b)没有人被处罚。该次击球无效,初始球或另一个球必须放回初始的位置。 

(c)没有人被处罚。你可以选择在球的现有位置继续打,或者重新进行该次击球。 

(d) 球童掉落毛巾的球员得到一般性处罚,因为球碰到了毛巾。该次击球无效,初始球或另一个球必须放回初始的位置。 

 

正确答案:B 

我们回到规则11.1和意外行为,但这里我们要看一下规则11.1b的一个例外情况。首先,记住规则11.1只适用于意外变向。规则11.1a告诉你是否有处罚,而规则11.1b则具体规定了意外变向后球必须从哪里打。  

和几乎所有的意外变向一样,规则11.1a告诉你对任何人都不会有惩罚。现在接着看规则11.1b,找出下一次击球的位置。在几乎所有的情况下,你会在球现有的位置继续打,但这里的情况并非如此。  

你碰到的毛巾是球员装备,但它同时是一个可移动妨碍物。是的,正是这样,有很多时候,在一个特定的情况下会有多个定义适用,这里就是如此。当你意识到这一点时貌似质疑也随之出现,但记住以下这句将对你有莫大的帮助:这不是什么稀罕事。再进一步来说,一个人对 “定义 “的理解会影响到对 “规则 “的理解,两者之间存在着很高的关联性。  

因为规则11.1b例外2针对的就是象毛巾这样的可移动妨碍物,所以该次击球不算,必须将初始球或另一球放回到初始的位置,从那里重新打,不受处罚。 

虽然这与意外变向的一般情况相矛盾(通常情况下没有罚杆,你在球现有的位置击球),但这也突现了规则中的另一个模式——当事情发生在果岭上时通常会被区别对待,因为推杆果岭被认为是一个特殊的地方。 

Hole 5 

Question: True or False: If your ball played from the putting green is deflected by a leaf being blown by the wind, the stroke does not count. 

(a) True 
(b) False 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

An age-old favorite here! Every autumn as the leaves begin to fall, the Rules team will field inquiries from dozens of golfers about perfect putts destined for the hole, only to have a leaf mercilessly knock their ball off its perfect line. 

 

A careful reading of the Rules will pick up both what is written and also what is not. While you might look to Exception 2 under Rule 11.1b for some relief, just like we saw on Hole 4, that’s not the case here. 

A detached leaf is a loose impediment (as well as an outside influence) and neither of those objects are included in Exception 2. This means you just use Rule 11.1 – there’s no penalty and you’ll play your next stroke from where your ball came to rest.  

正确或错误:如果你在果岭上打出的球被风吹起的树叶变向,该次击球无效。 
 (a) 正确  
 (b) 错误 

正确答案:B 

这是一个自古以来大家就津津乐道的话题!每年秋天当树叶纷纷离开枝头的时候,总有一堆现场球员会对规则团队说起:那一推眼看着必定要进洞的,结果却被一片无情的叶子撞歪了那条完美的推击线。 

仔细阅读规则,就会发现写了什么,没写什么。尽管你可能像我们在4号洞那样,试图从规则11.1b的例外2中寻找一些宽免,但这里的情况并非如此。 

一片脱落的叶子是一个散置障碍物(也是一个外部因素),而这两样物体都不包括在例外2的情况中。这意味着你只需用到规则11.1–没有任何处罚,你将从你的球静止的地方打下一杆。 

Hole 6 

Question: While a ball played from the putting green is in motion, which one of the following may not be moved to prevent the ball from hitting it? 

(a) A ball at rest on the putting green 
(b) A flagstick that has been removed and lies on the putting green 
(c) A twig  

CORRECT ANSWER: C 

On Hole 6 we revisit the concept from Hole 1. There, you learned that while most objects need to be left in place while a ball is in motion, player equipment can be moved even when done to influence the movement of a ball. 

The Exception to Rule 11.3 also includes a removed flagstick and a ball at rest on the putting green, but that’s it. Therefore, any other object that you lift or move while a ball is in motion to deliberately affect where that ball will go or come to rest will result in you getting the general penalty. 

当从推杆果岭上打出的球在运动时,以下哪项不得移动来防止被球打到? 

(a) 果岭上静止的球 

(b) 一根已经被移走并放在果岭上的旗杆  

(c)一根小树枝 

正确答案: C 

在6号洞,我们重温了1号洞的概念。你在那里了解到:当球运动时,大多数物体需要留在原地,但球员的装备可以被移动,即使这样做影响了球的运动。 

规则11.3的例外情况还包括一根已经被移走的旗杆和一个静止在果岭上的球,但仅此而已。因此,当球在运动中时,你拿起或移动任何其他物体来故意影响球的去向或停点,都会导致你受到一般性处罚。 

Hole 7 

Question: When it is known or virtually certain that your ball in motion was deliberately stopped or deflected by a person, which one of the following is true? 

(a) If your stroke was made from off the putting green, you may play the ball from the spot where it comes to rest.

(b) If your stroke was made from on the putting green, your stroke does not count and you must replace the original ball or another ball on its original spot. 

(c) Regardless of where your stroke was made, you must estimate the spot where the ball would have come to rest and play a ball from that location. 

CORRECT ANSWER: B 

Hole 7 focuses on what happens following a deliberate deflection or stopping of a ball in motion. As referenced in the practice area, this is one of the rare times in the Rules that the ball cannot be played as it lies. In fact, a ball can never be played as it lies following a deliberate deflection or stopping of a ball in motion – and it’s unusual to be absolute when it comes to the Rules. With that in mind, it becomes a debate between options B and C. As the putting green is a special place, a stroke in this situation doesn’t count and must be replayed.  

问题:当你知道或几乎肯定你的运动中球被人故意变向或被故意截停了,下列哪项是正确的? 

(a) 如果你的击球是从果岭之外打出的,你可以从球停下来的地方继续打。 

(b) 如果你的击球是在果岭上打出的,你的击球无效。你必须将初始球或另一球放回到初始的位置上。 

(c) 不管你在哪里击出的球,你都必须估计出球会在哪里停下来,并从那里继续打球。 

正确答案:B 

第7洞的重点是运动中的球被故意变向或被截停之后会发生什么。正如在练习区所提到的,这是规则中少有的不能在球的现有位置继续打的情况之一。事实上,运动中的球在被故意变向或截停之后,球是绝对不能在现有的位置打的–在规则中,这个绝对是不常见的。基于这一点,(这道题)就变成了是选答案B还是答案C之争了。由于推杆果岭作为一个特殊的地方,这种情况下的击球无效,必须重打。  

Hole 8 

Question: While your ball is in motion after a stroke, another player, who is not aware that your ball was in motion, lifts a rake to rake the bunker from where the other player had just played. Your ball rolls through the area from where the rake was lifted. What is the ruling? 
 
(a) Neither player gets a penalty. 
(b) You get the general penalty. 
(c)The player who lifted the rake gets the general penalty. 

CORRECT ANSWER: A 

On the surface, this question might appear to breach the principle of allowing a ball in motion to take its natural path. However, this principle only addresses deliberate actions that are taken to affect where a ball in motion might come to rest. Since this other player did not deliberately move the rake to affect where your ball would go (he was unaware you made a stroke), Rule 11.3 doesn’t apply. No penalty and play on.  

问题:另一位球员没有留意到你击球后球在运动中,(他)拿起沙耙去沙坑里将其他球员刚刚打球的地方扒平。然后你的球滚过了刚才放沙耙的区域,判定是什么? 

(a) 两位球员都没有处罚 

(b) 你得到一般性处罚。 

(c) 拿起沙耙的那位球员得到一般性处罚。  

正确答案:A 

从表面上看,这个问题似乎违反了让运动中的球走其自然路径的原则。然而,这个原则只针对那些为了影响运动中球可能静止的地方而采取的故意行为。由于这位球员并没有故意移动沙耙来影响你的球的去向(他不知道你击了球),所以规则11.3不适用。没有处罚,继续比赛。 

Hole 9 

Question: In stroke play, you hit your third shot into a par-5 green but it goes too far and over the green toward a red penalty area. Your caddie, who had walked ahead and was near the penalty area, intentionally stopped the ball before it could go into the penalty area. Seeing this happen, you estimate the spot where the ball would have come to rest in the penalty area. Based on that spot, you decide to take penalty area relief. After correctly dropping a ball, you hole out in two more strokes. What is your score for the hole?  
(a) 6 
(b) 7 
(c) 8 

       在比杆赛中,你的第三杆打上了一个五杆洞的果岭,但球滚得太远,越过果岭向一个红色罚杆区滚去。你的球童走在前面刚好在罚杆区附近,(他)故意在球进入罚杆区之前将球截停了。看到所发生的事,你估计了一下球可能会在罚杆区内的停点,根据这个点,你决定采取罚杆区补救。正确地抛球后,你再用两杆完成该洞。你这洞的杆数是多少?  
(a) 6 
(b) 7 
(c) 8 

CORRECT ANSWER: C 

It’s your responsibility as the player in stroke play to get your individual hole scores right on your scorecard and here it would be a good idea to figure out your score before heading over to the back nine. Since there never seems to be a referee around to ask for help when you play the Short Course, it’s all up to you! 

When your caddie intentionally stopped your ball from going into the penalty area, he breached Rule 11.2 and earned you a general penalty (two strokes in stroke play). Remembering that deliberate actions that breach the Rules never result in you playing the ball as it lies, you proceeded correctly by estimating where the ball would have come to rest. Because that was in the penalty area, penalty area relief under Rule 17.1d was available to you for one penalty stroke. That brings your total to three penalty strokes added onto your five talent strokes, for a grand total of eight. 

Let your marker know a snowman is in order and, if you’re ready for the challenge of the back nine, let’s make the turn.   

作为比杆赛的球员,你有责任把你各洞的成绩正确地记在你的记分卡上,在去往后九洞之前,最好在这里先算清楚你的成绩。看来是不会有裁判出现在这个Short Course上并给予帮助了,你只有靠自己了!  

当你的球童为了阻止你的球进入罚杆区而故意截停你的球时,他违反了规则11.2,并为你挣了个一般性处罚(比杆赛中罚两杆)。记住,故意违反规则的行为永远不会允许你在球停下的位置继续打球。接下来你估计出球会停在哪里,这样处理是正确的。 因为停点在罚杆区内,你可以根据规则17.1d罚一杆进行罚杆区补救。至此你得到3杆罚杆,加上你的5杆实际击球,总共8杆。 

让你的记分员给你写上一个象雪人一样的8字。 好了,如果你已经准备好迎接后九洞的挑战,我们就转场吧。