Short Course R3 F9


The Practice Area: Introduction to Ball at Rest Lifted or Moved 

The game of golf is a series of strokes on each hole starting from the teeing area and concluding when the ball is at rest in the bottom of the hole. Generally, the ball must be played as it lies after each stroke and may not be touched until the hole is completed. Sounds simple right? If only the game and its Rules were that simple! 

Richard S. Tufts spoke to this in his 2nd great principle behind the Rules, which reads, “you put your ball in play at the start of the hole, play only your own ball and do not touch it until you lift it from the hole.” 

You can learn more about the principles that form the foundation to the Rules of Golf in his classic writing, The Principles Behind the Rules of Golf, which the USGA rules team is currently in the final stages of revising to match the modernized Rules of Golf and hopes to have available in early 2021. 

It’s this simple concept we’ll explore in the third round of The Short Course, primarily focusing on Rule 9. Keeping this principle in mind, you are generally expected to exercise caution around your ball in play, as well as your opponent’s ball in match play. And, if you cause your ball to move, you’ll almost always be required to replace it. We’ll see this theme repeat throughout this round. You’ll also learn about a number of exceptions that, though you still need to replace your ball before playing, will allow you to do so with getting a penalty stoke. 

As you continue warming up, let’s move your attention away from that bucket of range balls for a moment. If you’ve played The Short Course before, you’ve likely heard us stress the importance of understanding the definitions in the Rules of Golf. The definition of “move” is perhaps the best example to offer up on this point. The Rules define a ball as having moved only when it leaves its original spot and comes to rest anywhere else (noting, that move could be vertically upwards or downwards or horizontal movement). 

This also means that when the ball returns to its original spot, it has not moved. You’ve likely seen this during your own play, such as accidentally bumping your ball on the putting green and having it rock forward and then back, or when addressing your ball in the rough and your club compresses the grass at address and your ball drops slightly but rises back up to its original position when you remove your club. In both of these situations, while you might see your ball “move,” the Rules do not treat such as a ball as having “moved” because it did not come to rest in another spot. 

Further, “moved” also includes an additional standard referred to as the naked eye standard, which can be summarized to mean that if a person with normal vision couldn’t have seen the ball move, it didn’t move. This is further explained in Interpretation Moved/2 and creates a buffer to protect golfers, who are limited in what they can see, from the constant advances in technology, especially as it relates to high-definition video. 

Regrettably we didn’t include any questions on the naked eye standard in this round of the Short Course, but there was a great example during the PGA TOUR’s Memorial Tournament when the ball of Jon Rahm moved shortly before he made a stroke that provided a great example of how this standard can apply in the field (you can read more about this incident here). 

Back to your warmup, there’s two key questions that have to be answered when dealing with a ball at rest moved situation. The first is whether the ball moved. And the second is whether that movement was known or virtual certainty to have occurred. 

Knowledge or virtual certainty (sometimes called KVC by us Rules geeks) is another key definition, used in several places in the Rules, including twice in this topic. It is frequently misunderstood, and therefore often misapplied by golfers. Known of virtually certain is a very high standard for deciding what happened to a player’s ball such that there is either conclusive evidence that the event in question happened (like a witness saw it happen) or by using all readily available information, there is 95% certainty that is occurred. Knowledge or virtual certainty is not assuming or guessing what happened to the ball. In fact, it’s very much the opposite – it’s that there is little to no doubt what happened to the player’s ball. 

If you do have knowledge or virtual certainty that your ball moved, the next question is what caused the ball to move? Here the Rules recognize only four possibilities (natural forces, you (the player), your opponent in match play, or an outside influence), and in the Short Course, your job will often be figure out from the facts what or who caused it to move. The answer to that will directly you to a specific sub-Rule in Rule 9 that tells you how to proceed, and whether there is a penalty. 

In order to treat a ball as having been moved by the player, an opponent or outside influence, it must be known or virtually certain that was the cause (with one exception you’ll be sure to encounter on the Short Course). Otherwise, the Rules default to natural forces. 

Hopefully, you’ve taken in the definitions and concepts covered during your practice sessions and can reinforce that knowledge on the front nine. You’re likely to need it all once you make the turn. Good luck and play well, your group is on next on the tee. 


理查德-S-塔夫斯(Richard S. Tufts)在规则背后的第2大原则中就谈到了这一点,他写道:你在一洞开始的时候把你的球置于比赛状态中,你只打你自己的球同时不要触碰它,直到你从洞内将它拿起来。 


我们将在第三轮短杆球场中探讨的就是这个简单的概念,主要关注规则9。牢记这个原则:一般来说,你在你的比赛状态球周围都要小心翼翼,在比洞赛中围着对手的比赛状态球也一样。而且,如果你导致了你的球移动,你几乎总是被要求将它放回原位。我们会看到这个主题在本轮Short Course中反复出现。你还会了解到一些例外情况,那就是,虽然你仍需在击球前将球放回原位,但这只会在你被罚了一杆的情况下才可以。 

当你继续热身的时候,让我们暂时把你的注意力从那一练习球上移开。如果以前玩过USGA的短杆球场(Short Course),可能听过我们强调理解高尔夫规则中定义的重要性。”移动 “的定义也许是最好的例子。规则中定义,只有当球离开原地,停在其他任何地方时,才算移动(注意,这种移动可以是垂直向上或向下,也可以是水平移动)。 

这也意味着,当球回到原点时,它没有移动。可能在自己的比赛中看到过这种情况,比如在推杆果岭上不小心到了球,球向前晃了晃,然后又向后晃了回来;又或者在长草里准备击球时,的球杆压住了草,的球稍稍下坠,但当移开球杆时,球又升回到原来的位置。在这两种情况下,虽然你可能会看到你的球 “移动”,但规则并不将这视为球的 “移动”,因为它并没有停在了另一个地方。 

此外,”移动 “还包括一个额外的标准,称为肉眼标准,可以概括为如果一个人以正常的视力不可能看到球移动,(那么)它就没有移动。这一点在释义Moved/2中做了进一步的解释并建立了一个缓冲:(就是说)球手的责任只限于他们所能见到的。以此保护球手免受不断进步的科技—— 尤其是与高清视频带来的相关影响 

遗憾的是,我们没有在这一轮短杆赛中加入任何关于肉眼标准的问题,但是在PGA巡回赛的纪念赛期间,有一个很好的例子,Jon Rahm的球在他击球前不久移动了,这提供了一个很好的例子,说明这个标准如何在球场上适用(你可以在这里阅读更多关于这个事件的信息)。 


知道或几乎肯定(我们这些规则极客有时称之为KVC)是另一个关键的定义,在规则中多处使用,包括本主题中的两次。它经常被误解,因此经常被球手误用。知道或几乎肯定是一个很高的标准,用来决定球员的球发生了什么—— 要么是有确凿的证据表明有关事件发生了(比如目击者看到了),要么是利用所有现成可用的信息,有95%确定发生了。知道或几乎肯定不是假设或猜测球发生了什么事实上,它是非常相反的——是对球员的球发生了什么只有一点点或完全没有怀疑。 




Hole 1

Question: Believing that your ball lies on the putting green, you mark its spot and lift the ball. You then realize that the ball was not on the putting green. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) There is no penalty so long as you did not clean the lifted ball and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(d) You get two penalty strokes in stroke play and the ball must be replaced. 


There’s little question here as to what caused the ball to move (you). It’s what happens next that you’ll need to know. When your ball comes to rest on the putting green, you can always mark and lift your ball. But that doesn’t apply if you mistakenly think your ball is on the putting green. Operating in Rule 9.4, you’ll get one penalty stroke and must replace the ball. 

Throughout this Round, you’ll see a lot of references to Rule 14. Rule 14 can be thought of as the “how to” section in the Rules – it provides the procedures for you interactions with a ball. In Rule 9, marking, lifting, placing and replacing is used repeatedly, so we’ll regularly reference those procedures. As an example, when you see “replace,” Rule 14.2 is where you’ll find out how to do that in accordance with the Rules. If you’re using the USGA Rules of Golf App, you can just click the link, or if you’re using the published book, Rule 14 is a good one to bookmark. 

Hole 1 


(a) 没有处罚,球必须放回原位 

(b) 只要你沒有把拿起的擦拭干净就不会被处罚,拿起的球必须放回原位 

(c) 你被罚一杆,该球必须放回原位。 

(d) 在比杆赛中你被罚两杆,该球必须放回原位。 

正确答案 c 


在本轮比赛中,你会看到很多关于规则14的内容。规则14可以被认为是规则中的 “怎么做 “部分–它规定了你与球互动的程序。在规则9中,标记、拿起、放置和重置(*放置回原位)被反复使用,所以我们会经常参考这些程序。例如,当你看到 “放置回原位”时,你会发现14.2是指导你根据规则要怎么做的地方。如果你使用的是USGA高尔夫规则APP,你可以直接点击链接,如果你使用的是规则书,规则14值得做个书签标记一下 

Hole 2 

Question: In which one of the following situations do you not get a penalty? 

(a) When attempting to mark the spot of your ball on the putting green, you drop your ball-marker on the ball, causing it to move. 
(b) You lift your ball from the putting green but forget to mark its spot first. 
(c) In preparing to make a stroke at your ball in the fairway, you accidentally move it with your clubhead. 
(d) While your ball lies in the general area, you deliberately touch it with your club, but it doesn’t move. 


Careful reading is needed to pick up on the many subtle differences this question is posing. If you can see them all, you’ll have seen you avoid the one penalty stroke under Rule 9.4b (Penalty for Lifting or Deliberately Touching Ball or Causing it Move) for only one of these actions. Either Exception 3 or 4 to Rule 9.4b will free you from a penalty in Option A. The putting green is a special place with many additional rights and privileges that you don’t have elsewhere on the course, including not getting a penalty for accidentally causing the ball to move. 

Exception 4 to Rule 9.4b will be frequently referenced in the round and allows you to proceed and apply the Rules knowing that accidentally causing your ball to move will not cost you a stroke. 

What about the other three choices? 

Option B at first glance seems to fall under Exception 3 for accidental movement on the putting green, but what is the accident here? Lifting the ball or forgetting to mark its position before doing so? It was no accident that your ball was moved, and failing to mark the spot, even if accidentally or out of forgetfulness will cost you a penalty stroke. 

Option C is a textbook example of accidentally causing your ball to move by failing to exercise enough caution, noting as well that your ball is not on the putting green so you can’t take advantage of Exception 3. 

In Option D, while you didn’t cause the ball to move, you did deliberately touch the ball in play, and this breaches the basic principle of not touching or moving the ball until the hole is completed, and is clearly prohibited by the open statement of Rule 9.4b. 

Hole 2 

问题: 下列哪种情况下,你不会受到处罚? 



(c) 在球道上准备击球时,你的杆头不小心导致了球移动 



这个问题所提出的许多微妙的差异需要仔细阅读才能发现。如果你能全部看出来,你就会看到你其中只有一个动作避免了规则9.4b(拿起或故意触碰球,或导致球移动的处罚)下的罚一杆。无论是规则9.4b的例外3或4,都可以在选项A下令你免于处罚。 果岭是一个特殊的地方,有许多你在球场其他地方所没有的额外权利和特权,包括不会因为意外导致球移动而被处罚。 






Hole 3 

Question: Your approach shot comes to rest on the putting green, 15 feet from the hole. Another player’s approach shot then hits and moves your ball to a spot 20 feet from the hole and you see this happen. The other player plays from where his ball came to rest, and you also play your ball from where it came to rest (20 feet from the hole). What is the ruling? 

(a) You proceeded correctly and get no penalty. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke in both match play and stroke play. 
(c) In match play you lose the hole, and in stroke play you get two penalty strokes. 
(d) In stroke play, you get two penalty strokes and must play from the original spot before starting play of the next hole. If not, you are disqualified. 

If you played Round 2 of the Short Course (where we covered Ball in Motion Stopped or Deflected), you should know that the other player will play his or her ball from where it came to rest, without penalty. But enough about the other player, this question is about YOU. 

Your ball at rest was moved by another ball, and that other ball in motion is an outside influence. Once again, the Rules require you to replace your ball when it has been moved. 

If you had replaced it before playing, because it was moved by an outside influence, there would not have been a penalty. However, by playing from where the ball came to rest, you breached Rule 9.6 and played from a wrong place. That earns you a general penalty, and in this case, since you didn’t get a significant advantage by playing from the wrong place, you don’t have to correct the mistake – just play on and make your way to Hole 4. 

Hole 3 


(a) 你处理正确,没有处罚 

(b) 在比洞赛和比杆赛中,你都被罚一杆。 

(c) 在比洞赛中你输了这个洞在比杆赛中你被罚两杆 

(d) 在比杆赛中,你被罚两杆,在下一洞开球之前你必须回到初始位置打球否则你被取消资格 





Hole 4 

Question: True or False: When your ball has been moved and you are required to replace it on its original spot, you get a penalty if you lift it from the new location without first marking its spot. 

(a) True 
(b) False 

As mentioned on Hole 1, it’s impossible to get through this round without referencing Rule 14. Rule 14.1a has the routine required for marking the spot of the ball, but that routine is only required when the ball is going back on the spot that you lifted it from. In this case, you are lifting the ball from “spot B” to replace it on “spot A” (the original spot the ball was moved from) so there’s no requirement to mark the ball before doing so. Get the ball back on the right spot and play on. 

问题:正确或错误: 当你的球被移动后,你必须把它放置回原位并且把这个球从被移动后的新位置拿起来的时候必须先标定球位否则罚一杆 

(a) 正确 

(b) 错误 



Hole 5 

Question: In Four-Ball, you see a ball in the general area that you believe to be a stray ball. You lift that ball and then realize it is your partner’s ball. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty to you or your partner and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) Your partner gets one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 


Ah … the ever-important principle of choosing your partner wisely! You are responsible for the actions your partner takes in relation to your ball and vice versa. 

Here, your partner is on the hook for one penalty stroke because you accidentally lifted his or her ball. And of course, the ball must be replaced. As a bonus insight, the ball may be replaced by either you or your partner. 

You may have noted that your careful reading of Rule 9 didn’t say anything about your partner. That’s because Rules 1-20 are written without reference to partners or other forms of play, so when you see Four-Ball or any other form of play (including team competitions), you’ll need to take a look to Rules 21-24, which modify Rules 1-20 as needed for these other forms of play. 


(a) 你和你的伙伴都没有处罚,球必须放回原位。 
(b) 你被罚一杆,球必须放回原位。 
(c) 你的伙伴被罚一杆,球必须放回原位。 

正确答案: C 

…… 永恒的重要原则:明智地选择你的合作伙伴!伙伴对你的球的所作所为由你负责,反之亦然。 



Hole 6 

Question: In stroke play, you and your partner are walking together to your tee shots. As your partner is approaching his ball in the rough, he accidentally kicks and moves your ball a few inches. Believing that the requirement to replace the moved ball is like other relief procedures, you replace another ball on the estimated spot and make your next stroke. How many penalty strokes do you get, if any? 

(a) 0 
(b) 1 
(c) 2 
(d) 3 


Hole 6 starts off feeling very similar to Hole 5. You get one penalty stroke because your partner caused your ball to moved and you’re required to replace your ball (based on your actions on Hole 5, we’ll leave it to you two to determine if your partner’s actions were really an accident and whether it’s time to call truce…). 

When the Rules require the ball to be replaced on the original spot, the original ball must be used (Rule 14.2a). By using another ball when you could have easily used the original (the question makes it clear that it was right there), you’ve upgraded the one penalty stroke you would have received to the general penalty. 

Rule 1.3c(4) provides guidance on how the Rules work when there’s been multiple breaches. In this case, causing the ball to move is a procedural breach and using another ball is a substitution breach. In this situation, because you had two related breaches, you earned a quantity discount – congratulations! 

You only get two penalty strokes (the general penalty) in stroke play. You may have heard this referred to as 1+2=2 in the past and this fits into Rule 1.3c(4) under “Combined Procedural and Substitution/ Wrong Place Breaches.”  

 Hole 6 


(a) 0 
(b) 1 
(c) 2 
(d) 3 



当规则要求你将那个球(the ball)放置回原位时,必须使用原球(规则14.2a)。当你很轻易就可以使用原球(题目清楚地表明它就在那里),而你却使用了另一个球时,你就获得了升级:把本来只罚一杆的处罚升级到了一般性处罚。 


在比杆赛中,你只被罚两杆(一般性处罚)。过去你可能听说过这被称为1+2=2,这也符合规则1.3c(4)下的 “程序违规和替换球/错误的地方违规的结合”。 

Hole 7 

Question: Before playing your approach shot from the general area, you decide to change clubs. You toss the club you were holding toward your golf bag, but the club strikes the bag and then strikes and moves your ball. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) In stroke play, you get two penalty strokes and the ball must be replaced. 


On Hole 7 you’ll need to refer back to one of the key questions from the practice area –  what caused the ball to move? By tossing the club towards your ball, it was you that caused your ball to move. That earns you one penalty stroke and requires your ball to be replaced. 

Keep this in mind as you prepare to make the turn. It may seem simple now, but things can change quickly on the Back Nine.  

Hole 7 


(a) 没有处罚,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(b) 你被罚一杆,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(c) 在比杆赛中,你被罚两杆,那个球必须放置回原位。 




Hole 8 

Question: In match play, your opponent plays from a greenside bunker, and the ball comes to rest three feet from the hole and on your line of play. While your opponent is raking the bunker, you mark and lift his ball without authority. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) You lose the hole. 


You’ve probably already caught on that there are a number of important differences in the Rules between match play and stroke play. This is based on Tufts first working principle (again referencing The Principles Behind the Rules of Golf), which states, “in match play, only you and your partner are involved, but in stroke play every competitor in the field has an interest in the results of your play.” This first part of this principle gives your opponent’s ball a special status and means you’ll want to take extra care when around it, and in most situations, you may not move or touch it. This is one of those cases, and because you didn’t have his or her authority to lift it, you’ll need to add one penalty stroke to your score. 


(a) 没有处罚,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(b) 你被罚一杆,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(c) 你输了这洞。 


你可能已经明白,比杆赛和比洞赛在规则上有很多重要的区别。这是基于塔夫茨的第一个运作原则(再次参考《高尔夫规则背后的原则》),其中指出:”在比洞赛中,只有你和你的伙伴参与其中,但在比杆赛中,你的成绩与场上每一位比赛者都有着利益关系。” 这个原则的第一部分赋予你对手的球一个特殊的地位,意味着你在它周围时要格外小心,在大多数情况下,你不能移动或触摸它。这(道题)就是其中的一种情况,由于你没有他或她的授权去拿起它,你需要在你的成绩上加上一杆罚杆。 

Hole 9 

Question: True or False: During your backswing for a stroke from the fairway, your ball starts to move, but you continue your swing and make the stroke. If you make your next stroke from where the ball came to rest after playing the moving ball, instead of replaying the stroke, you get the general penalty for playing from a wrong place.  

(a) True 
(b) False 


The Rules recognize that this great game creates an uncountable number of unexpected occurrences and Hole 9 serves as a just one example. You’ve learned repeatedly over the first 8 holes that a ball that is moved is always replaced. Here though on the 9th hole, your ball moves after you begin your backswing and you continue on and complete making your stroke. 

This is a rare exception where there’s no requirement to replace the ball because it can all happens so quickly – thus the Rules don’t require the ball to be replaced (this situation even allows you to play a moving ball without penalty!). 

Because there’s no requirement to replace, you haven’t played from a wrong place (also, while the question doesn’t ask this of you … you’ll know you are prepared for the challenge coming on the back nine if you know whether or not you get a penalty stroke if you had caused that movement).  

问题: 正确与错误 : 在你从球道击球,在上杆过程中,你的球开始移动,但是你继续你的挥杆并进行了击球。你在打完这个移动中球后,如果从球静止的地方进行下一次击球,而不是重新进行这次击球,你会因为从错误的地方击球而受到一般性处罚。 

(a) 正确 
(b) 错误 




因为没有放回原位的要求,所以你没有从错误的地方打球(另外,虽然问题没有问你……但如果你知道 —— 假如是你导致了那个球的移动你会不会被罚杆的话,你已经为后九的挑战做好准备了)。