Short Course R3 F9


The Practice Area: Introduction to Ball at Rest Lifted or Moved 

The game of golf is a series of strokes on each hole starting from the teeing area and concluding when the ball is at rest in the bottom of the hole. Generally, the ball must be played as it lies after each stroke and may not be touched until the hole is completed. Sounds simple right? If only the game and its Rules were that simple! 

Richard S. Tufts spoke to this in his 2nd great principle behind the Rules, which reads, “you put your ball in play at the start of the hole, play only your own ball and do not touch it until you lift it from the hole.” 

You can learn more about the principles that form the foundation to the Rules of Golf in his classic writing, The Principles Behind the Rules of Golf, which the USGA rules team is currently in the final stages of revising to match the modernized Rules of Golf and hopes to have available in early 2021. 

It’s this simple concept we’ll explore in the third round of The Short Course, primarily focusing on Rule 9. Keeping this principle in mind, you are generally expected to exercise caution around your ball in play, as well as your opponent’s ball in match play. And, if you cause your ball to move, you’ll almost always be required to replace it. We’ll see this theme repeat throughout this round. You’ll also learn about a number of exceptions that, though you still need to replace your ball before playing, will allow you to do so with getting a penalty stoke. 

As you continue warming up, let’s move your attention away from that bucket of range balls for a moment. If you’ve played The Short Course before, you’ve likely heard us stress the importance of understanding the definitions in the Rules of Golf. The definition of “move” is perhaps the best example to offer up on this point. The Rules define a ball as having moved only when it leaves its original spot and comes to rest anywhere else (noting, that move could be vertically upwards or downwards or horizontal movement). 

This also means that when the ball returns to its original spot, it has not moved. You’ve likely seen this during your own play, such as accidentally bumping your ball on the putting green and having it rock forward and then back, or when addressing your ball in the rough and your club compresses the grass at address and your ball drops slightly but rises back up to its original position when you remove your club. In both of these situations, while you might see your ball “move,” the Rules do not treat such as a ball as having “moved” because it did not come to rest in another spot. 

Further, “moved” also includes an additional standard referred to as the naked eye standard, which can be summarized to mean that if a person with normal vision couldn’t have seen the ball move, it didn’t move. This is further explained in Interpretation Moved/2 and creates a buffer to protect golfers, who are limited in what they can see, from the constant advances in technology, especially as it relates to high-definition video. 

Regrettably we didn’t include any questions on the naked eye standard in this round of the Short Course, but there was a great example during the PGA TOUR’s Memorial Tournament when the ball of Jon Rahm moved shortly before he made a stroke that provided a great example of how this standard can apply in the field (you can read more about this incident here). 

Back to your warmup, there’s two key questions that have to be answered when dealing with a ball at rest moved situation. The first is whether the ball moved. And the second is whether that movement was known or virtual certainty to have occurred. 

Knowledge or virtual certainty (sometimes called KVC by us Rules geeks) is another key definition, used in several places in the Rules, including twice in this topic. It is frequently misunderstood, and therefore often misapplied by golfers. Known of virtually certain is a very high standard for deciding what happened to a player’s ball such that there is either conclusive evidence that the event in question happened (like a witness saw it happen) or by using all readily available information, there is 95% certainty that is occurred. Knowledge or virtual certainty is not assuming or guessing what happened to the ball. In fact, it’s very much the opposite – it’s that there is little to no doubt what happened to the player’s ball. 

If you do have knowledge or virtual certainty that your ball moved, the next question is what caused the ball to move? Here the Rules recognize only four possibilities (natural forces, you (the player), your opponent in match play, or an outside influence), and in the Short Course, your job will often be figure out from the facts what or who caused it to move. The answer to that will directly you to a specific sub-Rule in Rule 9 that tells you how to proceed, and whether there is a penalty. 

In order to treat a ball as having been moved by the player, an opponent or outside influence, it must be known or virtually certain that was the cause (with one exception you’ll be sure to encounter on the Short Course). Otherwise, the Rules default to natural forces. 

Hopefully, you’ve taken in the definitions and concepts covered during your practice sessions and can reinforce that knowledge on the front nine. You’re likely to need it all once you make the turn. Good luck and play well, your group is on next on the tee. 


理查德-S-塔夫斯(Richard S. Tufts)在规则背后的第2大原则中就谈到了这一点,他写道:你在一洞开始的时候把你的球置于比赛状态中,你只打你自己的球同时不要触碰它,直到你从洞内将它拿起来。 


我们将在第三轮短杆球场中探讨的就是这个简单的概念,主要关注规则9。牢记这个原则:一般来说,你在你的比赛状态球周围都要小心翼翼,在比洞赛中围着对手的比赛状态球也一样。而且,如果你导致了你的球移动,你几乎总是被要求将它放回原位。我们会看到这个主题在本轮Short Course中反复出现。你还会了解到一些例外情况,那就是,虽然你仍需在击球前将球放回原位,但这只会在你被罚了一杆的情况下才可以。 

当你继续热身的时候,让我们暂时把你的注意力从那一练习球上移开。如果以前玩过USGA的短杆球场(Short Course),可能听过我们强调理解高尔夫规则中定义的重要性。”移动 “的定义也许是最好的例子。规则中定义,只有当球离开原地,停在其他任何地方时,才算移动(注意,这种移动可以是垂直向上或向下,也可以是水平移动)。 

这也意味着,当球回到原点时,它没有移动。可能在自己的比赛中看到过这种情况,比如在推杆果岭上不小心到了球,球向前晃了晃,然后又向后晃了回来;又或者在长草里准备击球时,的球杆压住了草,的球稍稍下坠,但当移开球杆时,球又升回到原来的位置。在这两种情况下,虽然你可能会看到你的球 “移动”,但规则并不将这视为球的 “移动”,因为它并没有停在了另一个地方。 

此外,”移动 “还包括一个额外的标准,称为肉眼标准,可以概括为如果一个人以正常的视力不可能看到球移动,(那么)它就没有移动。这一点在释义Moved/2中做了进一步的解释并建立了一个缓冲:(就是说)球手的责任只限于他们所能见到的。以此保护球手免受不断进步的科技—— 尤其是与高清视频带来的相关影响 

遗憾的是,我们没有在这一轮短杆赛中加入任何关于肉眼标准的问题,但是在PGA巡回赛的纪念赛期间,有一个很好的例子,Jon Rahm的球在他击球前不久移动了,这提供了一个很好的例子,说明这个标准如何在球场上适用(你可以在这里阅读更多关于这个事件的信息)。 


知道或几乎肯定(我们这些规则极客有时称之为KVC)是另一个关键的定义,在规则中多处使用,包括本主题中的两次。它经常被误解,因此经常被球手误用。知道或几乎肯定是一个很高的标准,用来决定球员的球发生了什么—— 要么是有确凿的证据表明有关事件发生了(比如目击者看到了),要么是利用所有现成可用的信息,有95%确定发生了。知道或几乎肯定不是假设或猜测球发生了什么事实上,它是非常相反的——是对球员的球发生了什么只有一点点或完全没有怀疑。 




Hole 1

Question: Believing that your ball lies on the putting green, you mark its spot and lift the ball. You then realize that the ball was not on the putting green. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) There is no penalty so long as you did not clean the lifted ball and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(d) You get two penalty strokes in stroke play and the ball must be replaced. 


There’s little question here as to what caused the ball to move (you). It’s what happens next that you’ll need to know. When your ball comes to rest on the putting green, you can always mark and lift your ball. But that doesn’t apply if you mistakenly think your ball is on the putting green. Operating in Rule 9.4, you’ll get one penalty stroke and must replace the ball. 

Throughout this Round, you’ll see a lot of references to Rule 14. Rule 14 can be thought of as the “how to” section in the Rules – it provides the procedures for you interactions with a ball. In Rule 9, marking, lifting, placing and replacing is used repeatedly, so we’ll regularly reference those procedures. As an example, when you see “replace,” Rule 14.2 is where you’ll find out how to do that in accordance with the Rules. If you’re using the USGA Rules of Golf App, you can just click the link, or if you’re using the published book, Rule 14 is a good one to bookmark. 

Hole 1 


(a) 没有处罚,球必须放回原位 

(b) 只要你沒有把拿起的擦拭干净就不会被处罚,拿起的球必须放回原位 

(c) 你被罚一杆,该球必须放回原位。 

(d) 在比杆赛中你被罚两杆,该球必须放回原位。 

正确答案 c 


在本轮比赛中,你会看到很多关于规则14的内容。规则14可以被认为是规则中的 “怎么做 “部分–它规定了你与球互动的程序。在规则9中,标记、拿起、放置和重置(*放置回原位)被反复使用,所以我们会经常参考这些程序。例如,当你看到 “放置回原位”时,你会发现14.2是指导你根据规则要怎么做的地方。如果你使用的是USGA高尔夫规则APP,你可以直接点击链接,如果你使用的是规则书,规则14值得做个书签标记一下 

Hole 2 

Question: In which one of the following situations do you not get a penalty? 

(a) When attempting to mark the spot of your ball on the putting green, you drop your ball-marker on the ball, causing it to move. 
(b) You lift your ball from the putting green but forget to mark its spot first. 
(c) In preparing to make a stroke at your ball in the fairway, you accidentally move it with your clubhead. 
(d) While your ball lies in the general area, you deliberately touch it with your club, but it doesn’t move. 


Careful reading is needed to pick up on the many subtle differences this question is posing. If you can see them all, you’ll have seen you avoid the one penalty stroke under Rule 9.4b (Penalty for Lifting or Deliberately Touching Ball or Causing it Move) for only one of these actions. Either Exception 3 or 4 to Rule 9.4b will free you from a penalty in Option A. The putting green is a special place with many additional rights and privileges that you don’t have elsewhere on the course, including not getting a penalty for accidentally causing the ball to move. 

Exception 4 to Rule 9.4b will be frequently referenced in the round and allows you to proceed and apply the Rules knowing that accidentally causing your ball to move will not cost you a stroke. 

What about the other three choices? 

Option B at first glance seems to fall under Exception 3 for accidental movement on the putting green, but what is the accident here? Lifting the ball or forgetting to mark its position before doing so? It was no accident that your ball was moved, and failing to mark the spot, even if accidentally or out of forgetfulness will cost you a penalty stroke. 

Option C is a textbook example of accidentally causing your ball to move by failing to exercise enough caution, noting as well that your ball is not on the putting green so you can’t take advantage of Exception 3. 

In Option D, while you didn’t cause the ball to move, you did deliberately touch the ball in play, and this breaches the basic principle of not touching or moving the ball until the hole is completed, and is clearly prohibited by the open statement of Rule 9.4b. 

Hole 2 

问题: 下列哪种情况下,你不会受到处罚? 



(c) 在球道上准备击球时,你的杆头不小心导致了球移动 



这个问题所提出的许多微妙的差异需要仔细阅读才能发现。如果你能全部看出来,你就会看到你其中只有一个动作避免了规则9.4b(拿起或故意触碰球,或导致球移动的处罚)下的罚一杆。无论是规则9.4b的例外3或4,都可以在选项A下令你免于处罚。 果岭是一个特殊的地方,有许多你在球场其他地方所没有的额外权利和特权,包括不会因为意外导致球移动而被处罚。 






Hole 3 

Question: Your approach shot comes to rest on the putting green, 15 feet from the hole. Another player’s approach shot then hits and moves your ball to a spot 20 feet from the hole and you see this happen. The other player plays from where his ball came to rest, and you also play your ball from where it came to rest (20 feet from the hole). What is the ruling? 

(a) You proceeded correctly and get no penalty. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke in both match play and stroke play. 
(c) In match play you lose the hole, and in stroke play you get two penalty strokes. 
(d) In stroke play, you get two penalty strokes and must play from the original spot before starting play of the next hole. If not, you are disqualified. 

If you played Round 2 of the Short Course (where we covered Ball in Motion Stopped or Deflected), you should know that the other player will play his or her ball from where it came to rest, without penalty. But enough about the other player, this question is about YOU. 

Your ball at rest was moved by another ball, and that other ball in motion is an outside influence. Once again, the Rules require you to replace your ball when it has been moved. 

If you had replaced it before playing, because it was moved by an outside influence, there would not have been a penalty. However, by playing from where the ball came to rest, you breached Rule 9.6 and played from a wrong place. That earns you a general penalty, and in this case, since you didn’t get a significant advantage by playing from the wrong place, you don’t have to correct the mistake – just play on and make your way to Hole 4. 

Hole 3 


(a) 你处理正确,没有处罚 

(b) 在比洞赛和比杆赛中,你都被罚一杆。 

(c) 在比洞赛中你输了这个洞在比杆赛中你被罚两杆 

(d) 在比杆赛中,你被罚两杆,在下一洞开球之前你必须回到初始位置打球否则你被取消资格 





Hole 4 

Question: True or False: When your ball has been moved and you are required to replace it on its original spot, you get a penalty if you lift it from the new location without first marking its spot. 

(a) True 
(b) False 

As mentioned on Hole 1, it’s impossible to get through this round without referencing Rule 14. Rule 14.1a has the routine required for marking the spot of the ball, but that routine is only required when the ball is going back on the spot that you lifted it from. In this case, you are lifting the ball from “spot B” to replace it on “spot A” (the original spot the ball was moved from) so there’s no requirement to mark the ball before doing so. Get the ball back on the right spot and play on. 

问题:正确或错误: 当你的球被移动后,你必须把它放置回原位并且把这个球从被移动后的新位置拿起来的时候必须先标定球位否则罚一杆 

(a) 正确 

(b) 错误 



Hole 5 

Question: In Four-Ball, you see a ball in the general area that you believe to be a stray ball. You lift that ball and then realize it is your partner’s ball. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty to you or your partner and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) Your partner gets one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 


Ah … the ever-important principle of choosing your partner wisely! You are responsible for the actions your partner takes in relation to your ball and vice versa. 

Here, your partner is on the hook for one penalty stroke because you accidentally lifted his or her ball. And of course, the ball must be replaced. As a bonus insight, the ball may be replaced by either you or your partner. 

You may have noted that your careful reading of Rule 9 didn’t say anything about your partner. That’s because Rules 1-20 are written without reference to partners or other forms of play, so when you see Four-Ball or any other form of play (including team competitions), you’ll need to take a look to Rules 21-24, which modify Rules 1-20 as needed for these other forms of play. 


(a) 你和你的伙伴都没有处罚,球必须放回原位。 
(b) 你被罚一杆,球必须放回原位。 
(c) 你的伙伴被罚一杆,球必须放回原位。 

正确答案: C 

…… 永恒的重要原则:明智地选择你的合作伙伴!伙伴对你的球的所作所为由你负责,反之亦然。 



Hole 6 

Question: In stroke play, you and your partner are walking together to your tee shots. As your partner is approaching his ball in the rough, he accidentally kicks and moves your ball a few inches. Believing that the requirement to replace the moved ball is like other relief procedures, you replace another ball on the estimated spot and make your next stroke. How many penalty strokes do you get, if any? 

(a) 0 
(b) 1 
(c) 2 
(d) 3 


Hole 6 starts off feeling very similar to Hole 5. You get one penalty stroke because your partner caused your ball to moved and you’re required to replace your ball (based on your actions on Hole 5, we’ll leave it to you two to determine if your partner’s actions were really an accident and whether it’s time to call truce…). 

When the Rules require the ball to be replaced on the original spot, the original ball must be used (Rule 14.2a). By using another ball when you could have easily used the original (the question makes it clear that it was right there), you’ve upgraded the one penalty stroke you would have received to the general penalty. 

Rule 1.3c(4) provides guidance on how the Rules work when there’s been multiple breaches. In this case, causing the ball to move is a procedural breach and using another ball is a substitution breach. In this situation, because you had two related breaches, you earned a quantity discount – congratulations! 

You only get two penalty strokes (the general penalty) in stroke play. You may have heard this referred to as 1+2=2 in the past and this fits into Rule 1.3c(4) under “Combined Procedural and Substitution/ Wrong Place Breaches.”  

 Hole 6 


(a) 0 
(b) 1 
(c) 2 
(d) 3 



当规则要求你将那个球(the ball)放置回原位时,必须使用原球(规则14.2a)。当你很轻易就可以使用原球(题目清楚地表明它就在那里),而你却使用了另一个球时,你就获得了升级:把本来只罚一杆的处罚升级到了一般性处罚。 


在比杆赛中,你只被罚两杆(一般性处罚)。过去你可能听说过这被称为1+2=2,这也符合规则1.3c(4)下的 “程序违规和替换球/错误的地方违规的结合”。 

Hole 7 

Question: Before playing your approach shot from the general area, you decide to change clubs. You toss the club you were holding toward your golf bag, but the club strikes the bag and then strikes and moves your ball. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) In stroke play, you get two penalty strokes and the ball must be replaced. 


On Hole 7 you’ll need to refer back to one of the key questions from the practice area –  what caused the ball to move? By tossing the club towards your ball, it was you that caused your ball to move. That earns you one penalty stroke and requires your ball to be replaced. 

Keep this in mind as you prepare to make the turn. It may seem simple now, but things can change quickly on the Back Nine.  

Hole 7 


(a) 没有处罚,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(b) 你被罚一杆,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(c) 在比杆赛中,你被罚两杆,那个球必须放置回原位。 




Hole 8 

Question: In match play, your opponent plays from a greenside bunker, and the ball comes to rest three feet from the hole and on your line of play. While your opponent is raking the bunker, you mark and lift his ball without authority. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and the ball must be replaced. 
(b) You get one penalty stroke and the ball must be replaced. 
(c) You lose the hole. 


You’ve probably already caught on that there are a number of important differences in the Rules between match play and stroke play. This is based on Tufts first working principle (again referencing The Principles Behind the Rules of Golf), which states, “in match play, only you and your partner are involved, but in stroke play every competitor in the field has an interest in the results of your play.” This first part of this principle gives your opponent’s ball a special status and means you’ll want to take extra care when around it, and in most situations, you may not move or touch it. This is one of those cases, and because you didn’t have his or her authority to lift it, you’ll need to add one penalty stroke to your score. 


(a) 没有处罚,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(b) 你被罚一杆,那个球必须放置回原位。 
(c) 你输了这洞。 


你可能已经明白,比杆赛和比洞赛在规则上有很多重要的区别。这是基于塔夫茨的第一个运作原则(再次参考《高尔夫规则背后的原则》),其中指出:”在比洞赛中,只有你和你的伙伴参与其中,但在比杆赛中,你的成绩与场上每一位比赛者都有着利益关系。” 这个原则的第一部分赋予你对手的球一个特殊的地位,意味着你在它周围时要格外小心,在大多数情况下,你不能移动或触摸它。这(道题)就是其中的一种情况,由于你没有他或她的授权去拿起它,你需要在你的成绩上加上一杆罚杆。 

Hole 9 

Question: True or False: During your backswing for a stroke from the fairway, your ball starts to move, but you continue your swing and make the stroke. If you make your next stroke from where the ball came to rest after playing the moving ball, instead of replaying the stroke, you get the general penalty for playing from a wrong place.  

(a) True 
(b) False 


The Rules recognize that this great game creates an uncountable number of unexpected occurrences and Hole 9 serves as a just one example. You’ve learned repeatedly over the first 8 holes that a ball that is moved is always replaced. Here though on the 9th hole, your ball moves after you begin your backswing and you continue on and complete making your stroke. 

This is a rare exception where there’s no requirement to replace the ball because it can all happens so quickly – thus the Rules don’t require the ball to be replaced (this situation even allows you to play a moving ball without penalty!). 

Because there’s no requirement to replace, you haven’t played from a wrong place (also, while the question doesn’t ask this of you … you’ll know you are prepared for the challenge coming on the back nine if you know whether or not you get a penalty stroke if you had caused that movement).  

问题: 正确与错误 : 在你从球道击球,在上杆过程中,你的球开始移动,但是你继续你的挥杆并进行了击球。你在打完这个移动中球后,如果从球静止的地方进行下一次击球,而不是重新进行这次击球,你会因为从错误的地方击球而受到一般性处罚。 

(a) 正确 
(b) 错误 




因为没有放回原位的要求,所以你没有从错误的地方打球(另外,虽然问题没有问你……但如果你知道 —— 假如是你导致了那个球的移动你会不会被罚杆的话,你已经为后九的挑战做好准备了)。 

USGA 题库第689题

这是USGA规则题库里面第689号题,是我很喜欢的一道题目。这道题要求读者对球的状态(ball status)理解透彻,继而可以正确运用适用的规则。搞清楚了这道题,很多困扰的规则问题也就搞清楚了。

比杆赛中,一位球员从18洞tee台开球,球进入了长草。他寻找了2分钟,找到一个处在很差球位的球。他认为这个球不可打,于是根据19.2b抛了球并将球打上了果岭。到了果岭上,他发现自己刚才打上来的那个球不是自己的球。 他折返回去刚才找球的地方,用30秒到时间找到了自己的球,球处于一个可以打的位置。他没有拿起这个球,直接把它打上了果岭并用2推完成了该洞。然后他来到交计分卡的帐篷,在交卡之前向记分员讲述了刚才那个洞的事情经过。他这个洞的成绩是:

a. 6
b. 8
c. 他必须回到tee台打第7杆
d. 他被取消资格

正确答案 c
Explanation Rule 18.1; Rule 14.7b(1); Rule 6.3b; Rule 6.3c, Interpretation 19.2/5

Windy’s Notes






Short Course R2 B9



Making the Turn and the Back Nine

(Questions 10-18) 

As you walk toward the 10th tee you quickly read a sign that has been conspicuously posted, “the back nine of the Short Course is extremely difficult and is only recommended for those with advanced knowledge of the Rules, and those willing to invest the time to get there.” 


你走向第10号洞的路上,你快速阅读了一个被贴在显眼的标牌:Short Course的后九洞难度极大,只推荐给那些对规则有高级知识的人,以及那些愿意投入时间到达那里的人。 

Hole 10 

Question: Your ball and a practice ball from the nearby practice area are both at rest on the putting green. You putt, and your ball accidentally hits the practice ball on the putting green. What is the ruling in stroke play? 

(a) There is no penalty and you must play your ball as it lies. 
(b) There is no penalty. Your stroke does not count and the original ball or another must be replaced on its original spot. 
(c) You get two penalty strokes and must play the ball as it lies. 
(d) You get two penalty strokes. Your stroke does not count and the original ball or another must be replaced on its original spot. 


(a) 没有处罚,你必须在球的现有位置继续打。

(b) 没有处罚。你的该次击球无效,必须将初始球或另一个球放回初始位置。

(c) 你得到两杆处罚,必须在球的现有位置继续打。

(d) 你得到两杆处罚,你的该次击球无效,必须将初始球或另一个球放回初始位置。


Hole 10 “welcomes” you to the back nine. There’s a tremendous amount going on in this question and it requires that you correctly apply both Rule 11.1a and Rule 11.1b, including both of their Exceptions. As mentioned in Hole 4, both parts of Rule 11.1 always apply to accidental deflections. 

Starting with Rule 11.1a, you must determine if this is a penalty situation. While the Exception to Rule 11.1a might appear to apply, the Exception applies only in stroke play when the player’s ball in play hits another player’s ball that is in play. The practice ball from the nearby practice area is not a ball in play, which means there is no penalty. 

We’ll explore one of the Rule’s deepest “rabbit holes” in another round, when we look at the different statuses the ball can have. But, for now, there’s already another group on the 10th tee and we don’t want to unreasonably delay play). 

In short, the Definition of “in play” clarifies both that the practice ball is not in play and also that when the Rules refer to a ball at rest, that means a ball that is in play. 

Next, you need to determine the correct procedure for where to play from (Rule 11.1b). You already know the practice ball is not a ball in play, but did you pick up on the fact that it is a movable obstruction? 

Because your ball accidentally hit a movable obstruction after a stroke from the putting green, Exception 2 to Rule 11.1b applies and you need to play again without penalty. 

10 号洞”欢迎 “你来到后九。这道题千头万绪,需要你正确应用规则11.1a和规则11.1b,包括它们的例外。正如在第4洞中提到的,规则11.1的两个部分始终适用于意外变向。 


当我们看待一个球时,它可以处于不同状态,不过我们之后会在另一轮中探讨这个规则里面 其中一个“最扑塑迷离狡兔窟”。现在,10号发球台上已经有另一组人了,我们不想无理地拖延比赛。 

简而言之,”比赛状态 “的定义既明确了一个练习球不在比赛状态中,也明确了当规则提及一个静止中球或运动中球时,其意思是这个球处于比赛状态。 



Hole 11 

Question: In which one of the following do you not get a penalty for lifting the branch while a ball is in motion? 

(a) You lift a branch to prevent the ball from hitting it, but the ball stops short of where the branch had been at rest. 
(b) You lift a branch to prevent the ball from hitting it and the ball rolls over the spot where the branch had been at rest. 
(c) In preparing to make your next stroke, you lift a branch so it’s not on your line of play. Another player’s ball rolls over the spot where the branch had been at rest. 


(a) 你起一根树枝以防止球撞到它,但球却在到达树枝所在的地方之前停下了。
(b) 你捡起一根树枝以防止球撞到它,随后球滚过了树枝所在的地方。
(c) 在准备进行下次击球时,你捡起一根树枝,使它不在你的打球线上。随后另一球手的球滚过了树枝所在的地方。 


Hole 11 revisits the concept you saw on a few front nine holes (Holes 1, 6 and 8). Unlike Rule 11.2, Rule 11.3 is not an outcome-based Rule. Rather, it prohibits specific deliberate actions only and does not consider whether the action was successful. 

As a reminder, it prohibits you from moving objects out of the way to affect where a ball in motion might come to rest. 

Rule 11.3 uses a different standard than the outcome-based Rule 11.2 because the Rules themselves address very different deliberate actions. 

In Rule 11.3, which prohibits lifting or moving objects out of the way of a moving ball, it would be very problematic to determine whether a breach has occurred based on whether your deliberate actions actually had an effect on where your ball in motion came to rest. 

Compare this to Rule 11.2, which again is about putting objects or yourself in the way, where a simple determination can be made 

Further, there’s another principle in the Rules as it relates to why penalties exist in the first place – the penalty for breaching a particular Rule is set to offset any potential advantage you might gain by breaching that Rule. In Rule 11.2, we can easily determine whether you gained an advantage, and a penalty therefore only applies if you do. Because that’s not something that can be determined with confidence in Rule 11.3, the penalty applies based solely on you taking the deliberate actions prohibited by the Rule. 

All of that means, both options A and B result in a penalty because you moved the branch to prevent the ball from hitting it – any further information is superfluous. In option C, you moved the branch to prepare for your play, which is allowed under Rule 15.1a (Removal of Loose Impediment). And, because you did not move it to deliberately affect where your ball in motion might come to rest, Rule 11.3 does not apply to you.  








Windy’s Note: 

R2#11 的解释对于理解规则11.211.3的区别非常重要。这里不仅阐述了一个是移入,另一个是移出的重大区别,而且告诉你为什么这个区别导致了结果为本动机为本两种不同的执行理念。 

        11.2结果为本——如果移入之后没有发生碰撞,那么球走了其自然路径球员没有获得额外的利益,这样规则就无需作进一步的处理,也就是没有犯规就没有伤害(英谚 no harm no foul)        

        11.3动机为本—— 由于是将物件移走,证物在球的路径范围消失了,球会不会撞上这个物件的答案就成为了没有实锤的悬案,判断球手有没有获得潜在利益变得非常棘手 。故此规则认为这样的情况下就不宜从结果的角度去执行,反而从动机的角度去执行可以较好地保持一致性。


Hole 12 

Question: True or False: You make a stroke from a deep greenside bunker to an elevated green. Although you can no longer see your ball, you assume it came to rest on the putting green. However, while retrieving a rake from just outside the bunker, your ball starts to roll back toward you. Another player alerts you to this and, to prevent the ball from rolling back into the bunker, you place the rake down on the ground in the path of the ball. The ball bounces over the rake without hitting it, and comes to rest back in the bunker. You get the general penalty for putting the rake down on the ground to try to deflect or stop your ball in motion. 

(a) True 
(b) False 


(a) 正确
(b) 错误


You now need switch mindsets to apply the standard of deliberate deflections in Rule 11.2, where it’s practical to apply a penalty based on the outcome of that deliberate action. As you learn more about the Rules, you’ll continue to grow more comfortable identifying which Rule applies, and a big part of correctly doing this is being able to recognize the differences and similarities between them. 

If you only scanned Hole 11, you might circle back to read the explanation about why Rule 11.2 and 11.3 are treated differently. 

With that foundation, you should see that the deliberate action you’ve taken here on Hole 12 is closest to that which is prohibited under Rule 11.2. But, while you did place the rake to deflect your ball, hoping it would not roll back into the bunker, Rule 11.2 only applies if you are successful in doing so. Since the ball did not strike the rake, Rule 11.2 doesn’t apply. Good luck getting your next stroke out of the bunker.  




Hole 13 

Question: In playing from above the hole on a steeply sloped putting green, you hit your putt a little too hard.  The ball misses the hole, rolls down the slope and then off the green. The ball bounces off a turtle and comes to rest in the rough. You make the next stroke from where the ball came to rest after the deflection. The original stroke was made 30 feet from the hole, and the stroke after the deflection is made 20 feet from the hole. What is the ruling in stroke play? 
(a) You proceeded correctly and get no penalty. 
(b) You get two penalty strokes and must continue with the ball that was played 20 feet from the hole. 
(c) You get two penalty strokes and, because you should have replayed the stroke, you must make the next stroke from the spot of the original stroke (30 feet from the hole). 

你从球洞上方的陡峭果岭上击球,推得有点过猛。 球错过了球洞,滚下斜坡出了果岭。球撞到了一只乌龟,弹起并停在了长草里。你球被变向后静止的地方击了球。你之前的击球位置距离洞口30英尺,被变向后的击球位置距离洞口20英尺。在比杆赛中的判定是什么? 
(a) 你处理正确,没有处罚。 
(b) 你被罚两杆,并必须继续打那个从离球洞20英尺处打出的球。 
(c) 你被罚两杆,因为你应该重打的,所以你必须回到初始位置(离洞口30英尺处)进行下一次击球。 


You’ve left your approach shot in a less than ideal position and, try as you might, you’ve putted clean off the green. It’s clear this deflection was an accident under Rule 11.1a, so there’s no penalty to you. 

But, navigating Rule 11.1b and its various Exceptions is the complexity of the hole. Exception 2 to Rule 11.1b applies when you play a ball from the putting green and accidentally hit any animal (as well as some other things) that are on the putting green. You must trust the words as written and apply them accordingly – easier said than done. 

Because the accidental deflection occurred off the putting green, the Exception does not apply. Therefore Rule 11.1b applies, and your ball is played as it lies.   


但是,掌控规则11.1b及其各种例外是这一洞的复杂之处。规则11.1b的例外情况2适用于当你从推杆果岭上击球,意外碰到了果岭上的任何动物(以及其他一些东西)。你必须相信面前的白纸黑字,并正确运用它们—— 真是说来容易做来难呀。 


Hole 14

Question: Your tee shot comes to rest in the pocket of a spectator standing in the general area. Which one of the following is false?

(a) When taking relief, you may drop the original ball or another ball.
(b) The reference point is the point right under where your ball first came to rest in the spectator’s pocket.
(c) You must drop a ball as near as possible to the reference point, but not nearer the hole.
(d) Your relief area is limited to the general area.


As with all games, their respective Rules need to tell players what to do. Hole 14 reminds us why the Rules of Golf can’t fit onto a notecard or into a brochure – that little white ball can come to rest in some pretty unusual places.

This is our first look at applying Exception 1 to Rule 11.1b. A fundamental principle of golf is that you play the ball as it lies, and while that works most of the time, it doesn’t provide you any help here. In this situation (and anytime your ball comes to rest in or on a person), you are not allowed to play your ball as it lies and must take relief according to the Rule.  

The 2019 Rules never require you to drop a ball on a specific spot (that’s another rare absolute) – dropping will always involve a relief area. That quickly points to option C as the false (and therefore the correct) answer.

The rest all come from a quick read through the relief procedure in Exception 1 to Rule 11.1b and the dropping Rule, Rule 14.3. You’ll see that the three other options are all part of how you take relief in this situation.

A bonus insight on a frequently asked question – there are only two times when you can measure two club-lengths from the reference point when dropping into a relief area.

  • When taking lateral relief from a red penalty area or
  • When you take lateral relief for an unplayable ball.

All other relief areas are one club-length only, as measured from the reference point. 


(a) 采取补救时,你可以使用你的初始球或另一个球来抛球。
(b) (补救)参考点是指你的球首先静止在观众口袋里的正下方的那个点。
(c) 你必须在尽可能靠近参考点、且不更靠近球洞处抛一个球。
(d) 你的补救区仅限于在普通区域里。

正确答案 C





~ 从红色罚杆区采取侧面补救,或
~ 你宣布不可打之球并采取侧面补救


Hole 15

Question: Which one of the following statements is true about Rule 11.3 (Deliberately Moving Objects or Altering Conditions to Affect Ball in Motion)?

(a) You get a penalty under Rule 11.3 only when the movement of a ball is affected by your prohibited deliberate action。
(b) You get a penalty under Rule 11.3 if you take a prohibited deliberate action to affect a ball in motion.
(c) Rule 11.3 does not apply if your prohibited deliberate action is taken when a ball starts rolling on its own and not as the result of a stroke.


The ease of this hole rests on your understanding of Rule 11.3. As referenced on previous holes, this Rule is concerned only about your deliberate action to affect where a ball in motion might come to rest, and its application does not depend on whether your action was successful. If that’s clear to you, option B should jump out as the right answer.

Option C might look correct, but if you look to the very beginning of Rule 11 (right after the purpose statement), you’ll see that Rule 11 applies anytime a ball is in motion (whether after a stroke or otherwise). You’ll also see there that there is one time when you wouldn’t use this Rule if a ball in play was deflected or stopped, and that is when you are dropping a ball to take relief, in which case you would use Rule 14.3 (Dropping Ball in a Relief Area). 

问题:关于规则11.3 (故意移动物件或改变环境以影响运动中球),以下哪项是正确的?

(a) 只有当球的运动受到你被禁止的故意行为的影响时,你才会被规则11.3处罚。
(b) 只要你采取了被禁止的故意行为去影响运动中的球,你就会受到规则11.3的处罚。
(c) 如果你的被禁止的故意行为是在球自己开始滚动时,而不是在击球后, 则规则11.3不适用。

正确答案: B



Hole 16

Question: Which one of the following scenarios results in you or another player getting a general penalty under Rule 11?

(a) While reading your line of play on the putting green, you place some clubs beyond the hole. Another player informs you that those clubs are in a position to stop your ball from going into an adjacent penalty area if hit too hard. Although you acknowledge that this could happen, you leave your clubs there anyway and make your next stroke. Your ball does end up rolling past the hole, bounces off one of your clubs, and comes to rest in the penalty area.

(b) In determining how to play a downhill putt, you notice the preceding group left a bunker rake in a position just off the green and next to a bunker. Even though you can see this might stop your ball from going into that bunker, you decide to leave it in that position. You make the stroke and your ball is stopped by the rake, likely preventing it from ending up in the bunker.

(c) You place your bag on the opposite side of the green in the rough, and just short of a penalty area. Before playing a chip shot from just off the putting green, you notice that your bag is in a position that could stop your ball from going into that penalty area if you hit it too hard. You make the stroke without moving your bag and, while your ball is in motion, your opponent moves your bag out of the way and your ball comes to rest in the penalty area.


Is placing an object for the purpose of deflecting a ball the same as realizing an object you placed might deflect your ball before making a stroke? What about seeing an object left by someone else might help you? Hole 16 requires that you untangle this web.

This is the first time we’ve had to dip into the Interpretations for some additional guidance to better understand what deliberately deflected or stopped means in Rule 11.2 – Interpretation 11.2a/1 provides that guidance and clarifies that if you realize before making a stroke that an object you positioned may deflect or stop the ball, Rule 11.2a will apply if your ball then hits it. That fits the fact set of Option A.

We can dig a little deeper here into the other two options, both of which would not result in a penalty under Rule 11.

A fundamental principle of the game is playing the course as you find it, and this is what happens in Option B. You’ve simply left an object placed by someone else, and by doing so you are playing the course as you found it.

Lastly, Option C requires an understanding of Rule 11.2 (for you) and Rule 11.3 (for your opponent). As it relates to you, remember that Rule 11.2 requires your devious act to succeed, but your opponent has “foiled” your plan so that your ball will end up in the penalty area (perhaps unknowingly saving you the general penalty in the process … if you’re wondering … yes, we get calls like this on occasion too!)

As it relates to the opponent’s actions, Rule 11.3 prohibits most objects from being deliberately moved out of the way, but you’ll recall from Holes 1 and 6 that there are few items that can be moved, and any player equipment is included in these items.


(a) 当你在果岭上看你的打球线时,你把一些球杆放在洞的后方。另一位球手告诉你,如果打得太用力,这些球杆可以阻挡你的球进入邻近的罚杆区。虽然你承认这种情况可能发生,但你还是把球杆放在那里,然后进行了下一次击球。你的球最终还是滚过了球洞,击中你的一根球杆,弹进并停在了罚杆区内。

(b) 在决定如何推下坡推杆时,你注意到前一组人将沙耙留在了果岭外和沙坑之间的位置。尽管你看到这可能会阻挡你的球进入沙坑,你还是决定把它留在那个位置。你击球后,你的球被沙耙拦住了,看似阻止了它进入沙坑。

(c) 你把你的球包放在果岭另一边的长草区,离罚杆区很近。在从果岭边切球之前,你注意到如果你打得太大,你的球包所处的位置可能会阻挡你的球进入罚杆区。你在没有移动球包的情况下进行了击球,当你的球在运动中时,你的对手将你的球包移开,你的球停在了罚球区。

正确答案: A





最后,选项C要求理解规则11.2(对你而言)和规则11.3(对你的对手而言)。对你而言,请记住规则11.2要求你的狡猾行为成功,但你的对手已经 “挫败 “了你的计划,所以你的球将最终进入到罚杆区(也许在这个过程中你不知不觉地规避了一般性处罚……如果你好奇想知道……是的,我们偶尔也会接到这样的电话!)。


Hole 17 

Question: You make a stroke and your ball in motion is stopped or deflected. It is estimated that your ball would have come to rest in the hole had it not been deflected. In which one of the following scenarios are you considered to have holed out? 
(a) Your stroke from the putting green is in motion and inches from the hole  when your opponent, who was not aware you had played, walks across your  line and accidentally deflects it. 

(b) You and your partner hit good approach shots to the putting green and both have a chance at birdie; yours is from 30 feet and your partner’s is from inside three feet. You make your stroke and while the ball is in motion and inches from the hole, your partner, who is confident of making birdie as well, jokingly stops your ball just before it begins to fall into the hole. 

(c) In stroke play, you make a stroke from the putting green at about the same time as another player in your group chips from the fringe. Your ball is on line with and just short of the hole when the other player’s ball strikes yours. The other player’s ball ends up in the hole and yours is deflected and comes to rest a few feet away. 

(d) In stroke play, your stroke from the rough just off the putting green is in motion on the putting green and headed directly toward the hole when it is deliberately deflected by another player. 


With Hole 17, if you “got it” right away, you already knew the only possible correct answer as soon as you finished reading the question. It was just a matter of finding it amongst the four options. 

Hole 9 was a similar situation, where your ball was deliberately deflected and you played your next stroke based on the location from where the ball was estimated to have come to rest (although on Hole 9 you took relief from the red penalty area instead, just before you asked if you could have another caddie at the turn). 

For both Hole 9, and here on Hole 17, you need to look to Rule 11.2c to find the correct answer. 

The only time we use this unusual procedure in the Rules (that is, estimating where the ball would have come to rest if not deflected or stopped) is when a deliberate deflection has occurred and your stroke was made from anywhere other than the putting green. 

In Option A, the deflection is accidental so you can immediately eliminate that as a correct answer. This is covered under Exception 2 to Rule 11.1b, which tells you to play again from the same spot, and without penalty. 

Further, in Options B and C, because your stroke was played from the putting green and there was a deliberate deflection, Rule 11.2c requires that you take relief –  your stroke does not count and you’ll need to play again from where you just played. 

That leaves only Option D. In looking at the fact set, you made a stroke from off the putting green, your ball was deliberately deflected while it is in motion and it is estimated that the ball would have come to rest in the hole. 

While some will look to Rule 11.2c and ask where it states that the ball is holed … don’t worry, you’re not missing anything as it clearly does not. But, through exclusion of the first three answers, Option D is the only possible answer based on the what is both fair and consistent with how similar situations are treated under the Rules. 

You may also be interested to know that there were a number of early drafts that included this outcome. But it was ultimately decided it would be best to remove this, and other similarly rare occurrences, to better the overall scope of the 2019 Rules.  



(b) 你和你的伙伴上果岭的一杆都打得不错,两人都有机会抓鸟。你的球离洞口有30英尺,而你伙伴的在3英尺内。你进行了击球,当球在运动中离洞口只有几英寸的时候,你的伙伴有信心自己也能打出小鸟球,于是在你的球就要进洞之前开玩笑地把球截停了。 

(c) 在比杆赛中,你从果岭上击球的同时,同组的另一位球手从果岭环切杆。你的球正向洞口滚动,差不多要进洞时,位球手的球撞到了你的球。最后那位球手的球进洞了,而你的球则偏离了洞口,停在几英尺外。  

(d) 在比杆赛中,你在果岭边的长草中进行了击球,你的球上了果岭并直接向着洞口前进的时候被另一位球员故意变向。 









虽然有些人会看规则11.2c,问哪里说了球进洞了 ……别担心,你没有漏掉任何东西,因为它确实没有(说)。但是,通过排除前三个答案,以及基于什么是“既公平且一致地按照规则处理类似的情况”,选项D是唯一可能的答案。  


Hole 18 

Question: In which one of the following do you not get a penalty under Rule 11? 

(a) After playing from a greenside bunker, you are raking the sand and see another player in your group chip from the other side of the putting green. Although that ball is coming toward you and the bunker, you don’t think it is traveling fast enough to get to the bunker, so you finish raking. To your surprise, the ball does end up in the bunker and comes to rest in the area that you had just raked. 

(b) You have a divot in your hand that you are going to replace when you see another player’s ball coming toward the divot hole, so you quickly replace the divot to make sure the player won’t get a bad lie. 

(c) Your chip shot up a steep slope stops just short of the top of the slope and starts rolling back toward you, and you remove the loose divot that you just made to prevent the ball from coming to rest against it. 


Hole 18 reminds you that there is more to Rule 11.3 than moving a loose impediment or movable obstruction to affect where your ball might come to rest – a lot more!  It also applies to deliberately altering physical conditions by taking any of the actions listed in Rule 8.1a (such as what is described in Option B where you replace a divot in a divot hole). 

While the questions so far have focused almost exclusively on you taking actions as it relates to your own ball in motion, Rule 11.3 can also apply to deliberate actions you take to any other player’s ball in motion. 

In reading through the options, Option A should stand out from the others because your actions were not to deliberately affect where the other player’s ball in motion might come to rest. Not only did you expect the ball to stop short, the inadvertent nature of your actions was further reinforced in that you were surprised the ball came to rest in the area you had just raked.  Therefore, there’s no penalty in that situation, while you earned yourself a general penalty in both Options B and C.  

问题:: 根据规则11,下列哪一项不会令你受到处罚? 

(a) 从果岭边的沙坑打完球后,您正一边扒沙,一边看到同组的另一位球手从果岭的另一边切杆。虽然那个球正向你和沙坑飞来,但你认为它的速度不足以到达沙坑,所以你完成了扒沙。令你惊讶的是,球最终还是落在了沙坑里,并且停在了你刚刚扒过的地方。 



正确答案: A 



在阅读选项时,选项A应该是与其它不同的,因为你的行为不是故意去影响对方球员运动中球可能停住的地方。你不仅预期球不会滚那么远,而且你行为的无意性在你惊讶于球竟然停在了你刚刚耙过的地方时得到了进一步的印证。 因此,在这种情况下没有处罚,而在选项B和C中,你自己导致了一个一般性处罚。 

Short Course R2 F9



  • The Practice Area: Introduction to Ball in Motion 

As you and all golfers know, despite our well-intended preparation, anything can and will happen once that little white ball is in motion. This concept, “Ball in Motion,” and all that can happen during its journey, is the focus of this round of the USGA’s Short Course on the Rules of Golf. 

There are a couple important points that underpin Rule 11 (Ball in Motion Accidentally Hits Person, Animal or Object, Deliberate Actions to Affect Ball in Motion). Understanding and recognizing these points will strengthen your ability to properly apply this Rule. 

We’ll start by noting a pattern you can find throughout the Rules – accidental acts are treated very differently than those that are deliberate. Let’s then start by looking at the differences in Rule 11 between accidental and deliberate deflections. 

Generally, when an accidental deflection happens, there’s no penalty and you play your ball as it lies. This was previously defined as a “rub of the green,” which has for decades been synonymous with bad luck by golfers. In reality, the definition didn’t speak to luck at all, rather it meant there had been an accidental deflection by something that was outside of your control. We’ve all experienced our fair share of accidental deflections, including the “lucky” good bounces as well as the “unlucky” bad ones. In golf, you are left to accept and overcome whichever version comes your way. As for “rub of the green,” the Rules no longer have this definition, and what some call a term of art, in part because it was rarely used correctly anyway. 

Deliberate actions in Rule 11 are very different. Let’s start with the generalization that someone will almost always get a penalty, further when a deliberate action does breach Rule 11, the ball cannot be played as it lies – something of a rare occurrence in the game of golf. 

In this round of the Short Course, many questions test your ability to differentiate between these two different outcomes and procedures. 

The second point ties into the deliberate actions noted above and also serves as a foundational principle of how the game is played. That is, once you set your ball into motion with a stroke, you can expect for your ball to take its natural path, without you or anyone else taking deliberate actions to alter that path. 

Another way to think about this principle is to compare golf to the sport of curling … golf is not like curling (except, perhaps for the many colorful outfits). In curling, players will enthusiastically work to deliberately affect where the stone will come to rest. In golf, most deliberate actions taken to affect where your ball in motion might go or come to rest result in a breach of the Rules. So the Rules serve to protect this principle by prohibiting most objects from being deliberately moved out of the way of your ball in motion and also serve to prohibit you or anyone else from taking an action to deliberately deflect or stop a moving ball. 

思考练习区: 介绍运动中的球 

你和所有的球手都知道,尽管我们做了精心的准备,但一旦小白球运动起来,任何事情都有可能发生。“运动中的球”,以及在其运动过程中可能发生的一切,是本轮USGA高尔夫规则Short Course的重点。 

规则11 (运动中的球意外地击中了人、动物或物体,故意行动来影响运动中的球)有几个重要的知识基点。理解和认识这些重点将增强你正确应用这条规则的能力。 


一般来说,当一个球意外的变向发生时,你不会受到处罚,你在球静止的位置击球即可。以前这被定义为“rub of  the green”,几十年来,这一直是高尔夫球手倒霉的代名词。实际上,这个定义根本就和运气没有关系,它的意思是由于你无法控制的某个事物造成了意外的变向,正如我们都机会均等地经历过“幸运”和“不幸”的两种着地。在高尔夫中,无论你面临的是什么形式的意外变向,你唯有接受和克服。至于rub of  the green,规则中不再有这个定义。也有人称之为艺术术语,部分原因是无论如何它都很少被正确使用过。 




另一种思考这个原则的方法是把高尔夫和冰壶(curling) 运动相比较……高尔夫不像冰壶运动(也许色彩缤纷的着装是列外)。在冰壶比赛中,运动员全情投入地故意影响冰壶的停点。在高尔夫球运动中,大多数故意影响运动中球的去向或静止位置的行为会导致违反规则。。因此,规则的作用是保护这一原则,规定禁止大多数物体从球的运动路径中被故意移开,同时禁止你或任何人采取故意使运动中的球向或停止的行为。

Rub of the green 

    Rub of the green  Ball in motion deliberately deflected by person2016中文规则的翻译相应是球被意外变向” 球被人故意变向,英文的区别这么大但中文的区别这么小,为什么?因为 rub of the green 基本上无法直译,它字面上根本就没有球、变向这些元素长久以来它是规则中的一个定义,定义一种完全与字面意思无关的状况。它的字面意思大概是擦过果岭与果岭擦肩而过之类,所以中文就摒弃了一切翻译的努力,直接说出确切意思算了 


Hole 1 

Question: True or False: You may move another player’s golf bag so that a ball in motion will not hit it. 

(a) True 
(b) False 


With those two main points fresh in your mind, let’s make our way to the first tee. How many times have you seen this exact situation happen during a round? The natural reaction for most golfers is to move that bag (player equipment) out of the way as a ball races towards it, which is what the Rules allow. That is, the equipment of any player may be moved while your ball is in motion, even if done deliberately to affect where your ball might go. 

Hopefully, this puts up a red flag because this directly contradicts the principle you just read above – let the ball take its natural path. This “exception” to that principle is present for two basic reasons. The first is that it’s the natural reaction for most and prohibiting this would create a number of undesirable penalties. The second is that navigating player equipment as you play is not part of the challenge of playing the game – players bring all kinds of things out on the course and it all gets moved around constantly. Therefore, via an Exception to Rule 11.3, all player equipment can be moved while a ball is in motion, and for any reason. 

(a) 正确 
(b) 错误 

正确答案: A


希望这里能引起大家的注意,因为这直接违背了你刚刚在上面读到的原则让球走它的自然路线。这个原则的 “例外 “之所以存在,有两个基本原因:  第一这是大多数人的自然反应,禁止这样做会造成一些不如人意的处罚。第二,在比赛中移动装备并不是这个比赛挑战元素——球员会带各种东西到球场上它们会被不停地移动。因此,通过规则11.3的例外,所有球员装备都可以在球运动时以任何理由被移动。 

Hole 2 

Question: You slice your tee shot into the trees and in trying to play back out to the fairway, your second shot hits a tree, bounces back and hits your body after being unable to move out of the way. The ball comes to rest in the rough. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty and you must play the ball as it lies. 
(b) There is no penalty, but your stroke does not count and must be replayed. 
(c) You get one penalty stroke and must play the ball as it lies. 


Hole 2 focuses on accidental deflections, and in this question, there are two. As was pointed out above, almost all accidental deflections result in no penalty and the ball is played as it lies. Not many would think twice about a ball hitting a tree (defined as an outside influence), but that’s Rule 11.1 at work. There’s no penalty and you play the ball as it lies. Now, if you missed this question, was it because you thought there is a penalty for the ball also accidentally deflecting off of you? This is an outcome that has changed over time. Currently, just like with the tree, because the deflection is accidental, there’s no penalty and you would still play the ball where it came to rest. 

That said, when your stroke results in your ball accidentally hitting you, the outcome is typically punishment enough and the Rules no longer see a need to contribute. 

a) 没有处罚,在球现有的位置继续打。 
(b) 没有处罚,你此次的击球无效,必须重打。 
(c) 罚一杆,在球的现有位置继续击球。 



现在,假如你答错了这题,是否因为你以为球被你自己意外变向了会罚一杆?这个结局已经随着时间的推移而转变了(指2019规则的改变- 译者注)。现在,就像(上述的)树一样,因为变向是意外的,没有处罚,你是在球停下来的地方(继续)击球。 


Hole 3 

Question: True or False: If you place your foot in a position to stop another player’s ball from rolling off the front of the putting green, you are penalized whether or not the ball hits your foot. 
(a) True 
(b) False 


Here we get our first look at deliberate deflections. Rule 11.2 covers deliberate deflections and it is helpful to remember in this Rule that simply taking a deliberate action does not always result in a penalty. It’s only when you are successful in deflecting or stopping your ball or any other ball in motion that you breach the Rule. Because of that, many will refer to Rule 11.2 as an outcome-based Rule in that to make a correct ruling, you need to know both what the player was trying to do, and whether it was successful. 

It follows then that if you attempt to deliberately deflect your ball in motion, but are unsuccessful, you do not get a penalty. While many Rules can be breached simply by taking a deliberate action (we’ll see this in Rule 11.3), this Rule doesn’t use that same standard because it is easy to differentiate between actions that affect where your ball in motion comes to rest and those that don’t. 

Another way that might help you commit this nuance to memory is to compare how similar it is to try to stop your ball in motion from rolling into a penalty area and having it bounce right over your foot, untouched and into the water versus how effective you are by pleading for a thinned wedge to “SIT DOWN” as it skitters over the green. 


(a) 正确 
(b) 错误 





– 你伸出一只脚试图阻止你的运动中球滚进一个罚杆区,但球弹起并跳过了你的脚,碰都没碰你的脚就滚进了水里。 

– 你的切杆打薄了,眼看你的球就要滚出果岭,你哀求着喊“停下”可以对球的运动产生怎样的影响? 

Hole 4 

Question: You play your ball from the putting green, and the ball in motion accidentally hits a towel dropped on the putting green by the caddie of another player. What is the ruling? 

(a) There is no penalty to anyone, and the ball is played as it lies. 
(b) There is no penalty to anyone. Your stroke does not count, and the original ball or another ball must be replaced on its original spot. 
(c) There is no penalty to anyone. You have the option to play the ball as it lies or replay the stroke. 
(d) The player whose caddie dropped the towel gets the general penalty since the ball hit the towel. Your stroke does not count, and the original ball or another ball must be replaced on its original spot. 


We’re back to Rule 11.1 and accidental acts, but here we’ll take a look at one of the Exceptions to Rule 11.1b. First, remember Rule 11.1 applies to accidental deflections only. Rule 11.1a tells you if there is a penalty and Rule 11.1b is specific to where the ball must be played from following an accidental deflection. 

As with nearly all accidental deflections, Rule 11.1a tells you there’s no penalty to anyone. Now onto Rule 11.1b to figure out where to play the next stroke from. In almost all cases, your ball will be played as it lies, but that’s not the case here. 

The towel you hit is player equipment, but it is also a movable obstruction. Yes, that’s right, there are many times when multiple Definitions will apply to any given situation, as is the case here. When you recognize this, while it might appear to present a challenge, it will be helpful to remember that this is not a rare occurrence. Further, there’s a very high correlation to one’s understanding of the Definitions and one’s understanding of the Rules. 

Because Exception 2 to Rule 11.1b addresses movable obstructions, which the towel is, the stroke does not count and either the original ball or another ball must be replaced on the original spot and played again from there, without penalty. 

While this also contradicts what is generally true for accidental deflections (normally there is no penalty and you play the ball as it lies), this also highlights another pattern in the Rules – when things happen on the putting green, they are often treated differently because the putting green is considered to be a special place. 





(d) 球童掉落毛巾的球员得到一般性处罚,因为球碰到了毛巾。该次击球无效,初始球或另一个球必须放回初始的位置。 





你碰到的毛巾是球员装备,但它同时是一个可移动妨碍物。是的,正是这样,有很多时候,在一个特定的情况下会有多个定义适用,这里就是如此。当你意识到这一点时貌似质疑也随之出现,但记住以下这句将对你有莫大的帮助:这不是什么稀罕事。再进一步来说,一个人对 “定义 “的理解会影响到对 “规则 “的理解,两者之间存在着很高的关联性。  



Hole 5 

Question: True or False: If your ball played from the putting green is deflected by a leaf being blown by the wind, the stroke does not count. 

(a) True 
(b) False 


An age-old favorite here! Every autumn as the leaves begin to fall, the Rules team will field inquiries from dozens of golfers about perfect putts destined for the hole, only to have a leaf mercilessly knock their ball off its perfect line. 


A careful reading of the Rules will pick up both what is written and also what is not. While you might look to Exception 2 under Rule 11.1b for some relief, just like we saw on Hole 4, that’s not the case here. 

A detached leaf is a loose impediment (as well as an outside influence) and neither of those objects are included in Exception 2. This means you just use Rule 11.1 – there’s no penalty and you’ll play your next stroke from where your ball came to rest.  

 (a) 正确  
 (b) 错误 





Hole 6 

Question: While a ball played from the putting green is in motion, which one of the following may not be moved to prevent the ball from hitting it? 

(a) A ball at rest on the putting green 
(b) A flagstick that has been removed and lies on the putting green 
(c) A twig  


On Hole 6 we revisit the concept from Hole 1. There, you learned that while most objects need to be left in place while a ball is in motion, player equipment can be moved even when done to influence the movement of a ball. 

The Exception to Rule 11.3 also includes a removed flagstick and a ball at rest on the putting green, but that’s it. Therefore, any other object that you lift or move while a ball is in motion to deliberately affect where that ball will go or come to rest will result in you getting the general penalty. 


(a) 果岭上静止的球 

(b) 一根已经被移走并放在果岭上的旗杆  


正确答案: C 



Hole 7 

Question: When it is known or virtually certain that your ball in motion was deliberately stopped or deflected by a person, which one of the following is true? 

(a) If your stroke was made from off the putting green, you may play the ball from the spot where it comes to rest.

(b) If your stroke was made from on the putting green, your stroke does not count and you must replace the original ball or another ball on its original spot. 

(c) Regardless of where your stroke was made, you must estimate the spot where the ball would have come to rest and play a ball from that location. 


Hole 7 focuses on what happens following a deliberate deflection or stopping of a ball in motion. As referenced in the practice area, this is one of the rare times in the Rules that the ball cannot be played as it lies. In fact, a ball can never be played as it lies following a deliberate deflection or stopping of a ball in motion – and it’s unusual to be absolute when it comes to the Rules. With that in mind, it becomes a debate between options B and C. As the putting green is a special place, a stroke in this situation doesn’t count and must be replayed.  


(a) 如果你的击球是从果岭之外打出的,你可以从球停下来的地方继续打。 

(b) 如果你的击球是在果岭上打出的,你的击球无效。你必须将初始球或另一球放回到初始的位置上。 

(c) 不管你在哪里击出的球,你都必须估计出球会在哪里停下来,并从那里继续打球。 



Hole 8 

Question: While your ball is in motion after a stroke, another player, who is not aware that your ball was in motion, lifts a rake to rake the bunker from where the other player had just played. Your ball rolls through the area from where the rake was lifted. What is the ruling? 
(a) Neither player gets a penalty. 
(b) You get the general penalty. 
(c)The player who lifted the rake gets the general penalty. 


On the surface, this question might appear to breach the principle of allowing a ball in motion to take its natural path. However, this principle only addresses deliberate actions that are taken to affect where a ball in motion might come to rest. Since this other player did not deliberately move the rake to affect where your ball would go (he was unaware you made a stroke), Rule 11.3 doesn’t apply. No penalty and play on.  


(a) 两位球员都没有处罚 

(b) 你得到一般性处罚。 

(c) 拿起沙耙的那位球员得到一般性处罚。  



Hole 9 

Question: In stroke play, you hit your third shot into a par-5 green but it goes too far and over the green toward a red penalty area. Your caddie, who had walked ahead and was near the penalty area, intentionally stopped the ball before it could go into the penalty area. Seeing this happen, you estimate the spot where the ball would have come to rest in the penalty area. Based on that spot, you decide to take penalty area relief. After correctly dropping a ball, you hole out in two more strokes. What is your score for the hole?  
(a) 6 
(b) 7 
(c) 8 

(a) 6 
(b) 7 
(c) 8 


It’s your responsibility as the player in stroke play to get your individual hole scores right on your scorecard and here it would be a good idea to figure out your score before heading over to the back nine. Since there never seems to be a referee around to ask for help when you play the Short Course, it’s all up to you! 

When your caddie intentionally stopped your ball from going into the penalty area, he breached Rule 11.2 and earned you a general penalty (two strokes in stroke play). Remembering that deliberate actions that breach the Rules never result in you playing the ball as it lies, you proceeded correctly by estimating where the ball would have come to rest. Because that was in the penalty area, penalty area relief under Rule 17.1d was available to you for one penalty stroke. That brings your total to three penalty strokes added onto your five talent strokes, for a grand total of eight. 

Let your marker know a snowman is in order and, if you’re ready for the challenge of the back nine, let’s make the turn.   

作为比杆赛的球员,你有责任把你各洞的成绩正确地记在你的记分卡上,在去往后九洞之前,最好在这里先算清楚你的成绩。看来是不会有裁判出现在这个Short Course上并给予帮助了,你只有靠自己了!  

当你的球童为了阻止你的球进入罚杆区而故意截停你的球时,他违反了规则11.2,并为你挣了个一般性处罚(比杆赛中罚两杆)。记住,故意违反规则的行为永远不会允许你在球停下的位置继续打球。接下来你估计出球会停在哪里,这样处理是正确的。 因为停点在罚杆区内,你可以根据规则17.1d罚一杆进行罚杆区补救。至此你得到3杆罚杆,加上你的5杆实际击球,总共8杆。 

让你的记分员给你写上一个象雪人一样的8字。 好了,如果你已经准备好迎接后九洞的挑战,我们就转场吧。  



       USGA 2020年 7月20 日就纪念赛(Memorial Tournament)上琼- 拉姆(Joh Rahm)在16洞因自己未察觉的球移动而罚两杆的事件发放了一则声明, 中心思想是:

  • 根据2017年颁布的视频使用指引,电视影像是确认事实时可信和可用的来源。

  • 基于“移动”的定义和规则2c“肉眼”的标准,该判罚并没有使用高于上述术语的标准。

  • 视频是在实际速度下播放(不是慢镜),符合球员肉眼可见的标准。虽然球员没有专注在球上,但基于他的站位球员可以看见球移位的事实。

  • 点击此处查看USGA声明原文。

        7月22日的USGA裁判网会上专门就拉姆的情况请与会的裁判就罚与不罚投票,然后Craig Winter详细讲解了USGA的观点,之后再请大家投票。总的来说主张罚的投票占了多数。网会全程已发布在USGA网站上,对此事件的解释大约在33分到45分之间,讲了超过10分钟,有兴趣的裁判可以听听。有趣的是,解释了10分钟后,支持不罚杆的裁判增加了。






决定球移动的原因最好的方法是排除法,排除三项,剩下的唯一一项就是导致球移动的原因。多数时候排除的顺序可以是:球员?(比洞赛)对手?外部因素?如果这三项都否定,那么规则就默认是自然力了,一定是风、水、地心引力…… [9.2b(2)]


        拉姆事件中,如何理解9.2a 及 b所提及的“知道或几乎肯定-known or virtually certain”(以下简称KVC)?



1,球有没有发生符合定义的“移动”?—— 有。
2,是什么导致球移动的?—— 球员将球杆向下压导致球移动了。
再加一个:可以KVC吗?—— 可以,有录像。





  • 如果不是球员导致球移动的,不罚杆;
  • 如果是球员导致球移动的,虽然球员没有留意或不知道,罚杆是不可避免的。

        释义9.2a/1 和 9.2a/2 解释了这类情况,尤其是释义/2,标题就说得很明白了:球员要对导致球移动的行为负责,即使在不觉察到球已经移动的情况下。



“The ball did move. It’s as simple as that,” Rahm said. “The rules of golf are clear. Had I seen it, I would have said something. But you have to zoom in the camera to be able to see something, and I have rough, I’m looking at my landing spot. I’m not really thinking of looking at the golf ball……

“As unfortunate as it is to have this happen, it was a great shot. What it goes to show is you never know what’s going to happen. So I’m glad I grinded those last two up-and-downs……I want everybody to hear it; it did move. It is a penalty. But it did move, so I’ll accept the penalty, and it still doesn’t change the outcome of the tournament. It doesn’t take anything from the day, though. It’s still probably one of the greatest days of my life.”




The Extra Mile with C.T. Pan

Golf Digest 这两天发了三部短视频,记录的是潘政琮开着他2020年买的奔驰露营车,与记者一起从凤凰城到圆石滩800英里路程的经过。当中潘政琮谈起自己是怎样开始打球的,父亲带着他和哥哥睡在一辆面包车里打了7年比赛的往事…… 









其中提到他的恩师卢宏宗(已故)。我早些年接触到卢先生的理念时觉得非常认同。卢先生是帮助潘政琮作出人生关键选择的人,他说过,他不但要培养一位PGA Player, 更是要培养一个pathfinder(寻路者)。



Wen's Produce

万家灯火闹元宵 一碗 汤圆 瑞气盈

圆润的白汤圆,古朴的蓝瓷碗,最要紧是那几条画龙点睛的名贵香料Saffron (藏红花)。西人一看,顿感这汤圆定是矜贵之物,再告知寓意Reunion(团圆),更觉家国情怀,尽在此中了。

—— 谢谢文大厨的汤圆












FAA & NTSB (联邦航空管理局和国家运输安全委员会)随后发布声明称将对此事件展开调查。晚些时候,我们隔壁的小区收到警察局通知,让大家在自家空地上找碎片并向警察局报告。电视、电台及社交媒体告诉大家发现了碎片千万不要移动它们,调查人员需根据它们落下的位置结合飞机飞行的路径来进行研究。


2020 读书




荷兰  约翰范德沃特 John van de Water  蒋晓飞译 2013


2 《英华沉浮录》

董桥 2012


3 《天涯晚笛》

苏炜 2013


4 《念楼学短》

钟叔河 2018


以下是Kindle 电子版的书。


余新忠 2014



尼古拉 特斯拉 Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)著 刘思丽译

满街跑的特斯拉正是以这位科学家的名字命名的,是Elon Musk对这位“最接近神的人” 的致敬。可以说即便今天,但凡有电的地方,我们仍享受着特斯拉的贡献。文科生对物理电学什么的不太懂,我想理科生一定看得很过瘾。我特地记下来的是这一段话:



法国 卡缪  1942 ,1957年获诺贝尔文学奖


8 《杀死一只知更鸟》

哈珀 李 Harper Lee 1960, 1961年普利策奖


9 《海奥华预言》

澳洲 米歇 戴斯马克 Michel Desmarquet  1993



林语堂 1943